Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 57, Issue 3–4, pp 347–360 | Cite as

A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

  • Daniel CarrilloEmail author
  • J. Howard Frank
  • Jose Carlos V. Rodrigues
  • Jorge E. Peña


A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.


Raoiella indica Invasive species Biological control Natural enemies Predatory mites Predatory insects Pathogenic fungi Amblyseius largoensis 



We thank Drs. J. A. McMurtry and J. Jacas for helpful reviews of the original manuscript. We are thankful with Dr. Cal Welbourn, Dr. R. J. Gagné and Dr. L. Stange for the identification of mite, midges, and lacewing specimens, respectively. We thank Dr. Eric Riddick for providing S. punctillum, and Drs. A. Roda, F. Ferragut, R. Ochoa and G. De Moraes for their cooperation. We would like to acknowledge B. Taylor, the Indian government and Kerala Forest Research Institute for providing information regarding the associations reported in Kerala, India. We thank R. Duncan, K. Santos and D. Long for their help. This research was partially funded by a TSTAR Grant to JEP.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Carrillo
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Howard Frank
    • 2
  • Jose Carlos V. Rodrigues
    • 3
  • Jorge E. Peña
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Entomology and Nematology, Tropical Research and Education CenterUniversity of FloridaHomesteadUSA
  2. 2.Department of Entomology and NematologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.University of Puerto RicoSan JuanPuerto Rico

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