Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 251–262 | Cite as

Acaricidal effects of Corymbia citriodora oil containing para-menthane-3,8-diol against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)

  • Fawzeia H. Elmhalli
  • Katinka Pålsson
  • Jan Örberg
  • Thomas G. T. Jaenson


The toxicity of para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), the main arthropod-repellent compound in the oil of the lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora, was evaluated against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus using five methods (A–E) of a contact toxicity bioassay. Mortality rates were estimated by recording numbers of dead nymphs at 30 min intervals during the first 5 h after the start of exposure and at longer intervals thereafter. The mortality rate increased with increasing concentration of PMD and duration of exposure with a distinct effect after 3.5 h. From the results obtained by methods A, C and E, the LC50 range was 0.035–0.037 mg PMD/cm2 and the LC95 range was 0.095–0.097 mg PMD/cm2 at 4 h of exposure; the LT50 range was 2.1–2.8 h and the LT95 range was 3.9–4.2 h at 0.1 mg PMD/cm2. To determine the duration of toxic activity of PMD, different concentrations (0.002, 0.01, 0.1 mg PMD/cm2) were tested and mortality was recorded at each concentration after 1 h; thereafter new ticks were tested. This test revealed that the lethal activity of PMD remained for 24 h but appeared absent after 48 h. The overall results show that PMD is toxic to nymphs of I. ricinus and may be useful for tick control.


Corymbia citriodora Ixodes ricinus Acaricides Para-menthane-3,8-diol Ticks Toxicity 



We are grateful to the Libyan Embassy, Stockholm; Bioglan Pharma–Max Medica, Malmö, Sweden; The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas/SJFR); and The Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida/Sarec) for funding this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fawzeia H. Elmhalli
    • 1
  • Katinka Pålsson
    • 1
  • Jan Örberg
    • 2
  • Thomas G. T. Jaenson
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical Entomology Unit, Department of Systematic Biology, Evolutionary Biology CentreUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology CentreUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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