Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 46, Issue 1–4, pp 275–285 | Cite as

Effect of temperature on virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates to Tetranychus evansi

  • David M. Bugeme
  • Nguya K. Maniania
  • Markus Knapp
  • Hamadi I. Boga


The virulence of three isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and 23 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnik.) Sorok. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the tomato spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), was assessed in the laboratory. The effect of temperature on germination, radial growth and virulence of selected isolates (two isolates of B. bassiana and nine of M. anisopliae) on T. evansi was also investigated in the laboratory. All the fungal isolates tested were pathogenic to the adult females of T. evansi, and there were significant differences in mortality between fungal isolates. The lethal time to 50% mortality (LT50) values ranged from 4.2 to 8.1 days and the LT90 values from 5.6 to 15.1 days. Temperature had significant effects on germination, radial growth and virulence of the various isolates. The best fungal germination was observed at 25 and 30°C, while for the fungal radial growth it was 30°C. All the isolates germinated and grew at all temperatures, but germination and radial growth varied with isolate and temperature. The selected isolates were all virulent to T. evansi, but virulence varied also with isolate and temperature.


Ascomycota Beauveria bassiana Hypocreales Germination Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogenicity Radial growth Tetranychidae Tetranychus evansi Virulence 



The authors are grateful to Drs. N. Jiang and F. Schultess (ICIPE) for reviewing the first draft of the manuscript. The authors are also grateful to A. Wanjoya for statistical advice and Ms. E.O. Ouna, Mr. R. Rotich, Mr. C. Kyallo and Mr. B. Muia for technical assistance. This study received financial support from the SII-Dutch government fund through the African Regional Postgraduate Programme in Insect Science (ARPPIS) of ICIPE and from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Bugeme
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nguya K. Maniania
    • 1
  • Markus Knapp
    • 1
  • Hamadi I. Boga
    • 2
  1. 1.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)NairobiKenya
  2. 2.Department of BotanyJomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) NairobiKenya

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