Advertisement

Experimental & Applied Acarology

, Volume 39, Issue 3–4, pp 321–329 | Cite as

Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia in Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae) from a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) rookery in South Carolina, USA

  • Will K. ReevesEmail author
  • Amanda D. Loftis
  • Felicia Sanders
  • Mark D. Spinks
  • William Wills
  • Amy M. Denison
  • Gregory A. Dasch
Original Paper

Abstract

Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents of humans and animals. Carios capensis, a tick of seabirds, infests the nests of brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis, and other ground nesting birds along the coast of South Carolina. This tick is associated with pelican nest abandonment and could pose a threat to humans visiting pelican rookeries if visitors are exposed to ticks harboring infectious agents. We collected ticks from a pelican rookery on Deveaux Bank, South Carolina and screened 64 individual ticks, six pools of larvae, and an egg mass for DNA from Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Ticks harbored DNA from “Borrelia lonestari”, a novel Coxiella sp., and three species of Rickettsia, including Rickettsia felis and two undescribed Rickettsia spp. DNA from the Coxiella and two undescribed Rickettsia were detected in unfed larvae that emerged in the laboratory, which implies these agents are transmitted vertically by female ticks. We partially characterize the novel Coxiella by molecular means.

Keywords

Tick Pelican Rickettsia Borrelia Coxiella South Carolina 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank P.H. Adler, R.L. Hassell, T.M. Murphy, M.P. Nelder, W.C. Reeves, and B.M. Shepard, for assistance with field collections and loaning of equipment. The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the United States Government. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the funding agency.

References

  1. Barbour AG, Maupin GO, Teltow GJ, Carter CJ, Piesman J (1996) Identification of an uncultivable Borrelia species in the hard tick Amblyomma americanum: possible agent of a Lyme disease-like illness. J Infect Dis 173:403–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Carl M, Tibbs CW, Dobson ME, Paparello S, Dasch GA (1990) Diagnosis of acute typhus infection using the polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis 161:791–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Converse JD, Hoogstraal H, Moussa MI, Feare CJ, Kaiser MN (1975) Soldado virus (Hughes group) from Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) capensis (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) infesting sooty tern colonies in the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24:1010–1018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Doherty RL, Whitehead RH, Wetters EJ, Johnson HN (1969) Isolation of viruses from Ornithodoros capensis Neumann from a tern colony on the Great Barrier Reef, North Queensland. Aust J Sci 31:363–364Google Scholar
  5. Duffy DC (1983) The ecology of tick parasitism on densely nesting Peruvian seabirds. Ecology 64:110–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Durden LA, Wills W, Clark KL (1999) The fleas (Siphonaptera) of South Carolina with an assessment of their vectoral importance. J Vector Ecol 24:171–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. El Shoura SM (1990) Ultrastructure and distribution of intracellular rickettsia-like microorganisms in various organs of the laboratory-reared adult tick Argas (Persicargas) arboreus (Ixodoidea: Argaside). Exp App Acarol 9:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Estrada-Pena A, Jongejan F (1999) Ticks feeding on humans: a review of records on human-biting Ixodoidea with special reference to pathogen transmission. Exp Appl Acarol 23:685–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ewing SA, Harkess JR, Kocan KM, Barker RW, Fox JC, Tyler RD, Cowell RL, Morton RB(1990) Failure to transmit Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) with Otobius megnini (Acari: Argasidae). J Med Entomol 27:803–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fournier PE, Roux V, Raoult D (1998) Phylogenetic analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae by study of the outer surface protein rOmpA. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:839–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Guedes E, Leite RC, Prata MC, Pacheco RC, Walker DH, Labruna MB (2005) Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais. Mem I Oswaldo Cruz 100:841–845Google Scholar
  12. Hoogstraal H, Bafort JM (1982) Ticks of Saudi Arabia Ornithodoros (Alectorobius)muesebecki (Acarina: fam. Argasidae) parasitizing marine birds in the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia. Fauna Saudi Arabia 4:23–28Google Scholar
  13. Hoogstraal H (1985) Argasid and nuttalliellid ticks as parasites and vectors. Adv Parasit 24:135–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoogstraal H, Wassef HY, Hays C, Keirans JE (1985) Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) spheniscus n. sp. (Acarina: Ixodoidea: Argasidae: Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) capensis group), a tick parasite of the Humboldt Penguin in Peru. J Parasitol 71:635–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Houpikian P, Raoult D (2001) 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions for phylogenetic analysis, identification, and subtyping of Bartonella species. J Clin Microbiol 39:2768–2778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Keirans JE, Hutcheson HJ, Oliver JH Jr (1992) Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) capensis Neumann (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae), a parasite of seabirds, established along the Southeastern seacoast of the United States. J Med Entomol 29:371–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. King KA, Blankinship DR, Paul RT (1977a) Ticks as a factor in the 1975 nesting failure of Texas brown pelicans. Wilson Bull 89:157–158Google Scholar
  18. King KA, Keith JO, Mitchell CA, Keirans JE (1977b) Ticks as a factor in nest desertion in California brown pelicans. Condor 79:507–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee JH, Park HS, Jang WJ, Koh SE, Park TK, Kang SS, Kim BJ, Kook YH, Park KH, Lee SH (2004) Identification of the Coxiella sp. detected from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in Korea. Microbiol Immunol 48:125–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Mediannikov O, Ivanov L, Nishikawa M, Saito R, Sidelnikov YN, Zdanovskaya NI, Tarasevich IV, Suzuki H (2003) Molecular evidence of Coxiella-like microorganism harbored by Haemaphysalis conicinnae in the Russian Far East. Ann Acad Sci 990:226–228Google Scholar
  21. Noda H, Munderloh UG, Kurtti TJ (1997) Endosymbionts of ticks and their relationship to Wolbachia spp and tick-borne pathogens of human and animals. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3926–3932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Podboronov VM, Pchelkina AA (1989) Characteristics of the transphase and transovarial transmission of Rickettsia sibirica by ixodid and argasid ticks. (in Russian) Med Parazitol (Moscow) July–August:14–18Google Scholar
  23. Reeves WK (2005) Molecular genetic evidence for a novel bacterial endosymbiont of Icosta americana (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Entomol News 116:263–265Google Scholar
  24. Reeves W, Durden L, Wills W (2002) New records of ticks (Acari: Argasidae, Ixodidae) from South Carolina. J Agr Urban Entomol 19:197–204Google Scholar
  25. Roshdy MA (1968) A rickettsialike (sic) microorganism in the tick Ornithodoros savignyi; observations on its structure and distribution in the tissues of the tick. J Invertebr Pathol 11:155–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Roux V, Rydkina E, Eremeeva M, Raoult D (1997) Citrate synthase gene comparison, a new tool for phylogenetic analysis, and its application for the rickettsiae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:252–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sekeyova Z, Roux V, Raoult D (1999) Intraspecies diversity of Coxiella burnetii as revealed by com1 and mucZ sequence comparison. FEMS Microbiol Letters 180:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Skerman VBD, McGowan V, Sneath PHA (1980) Approved lists of bacterial names. Int J Syst Bacteriol 30:225–420Google Scholar
  29. Stein A, Raoult D (1992) Detection of Coxiella burnetii by DNA amplification using polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30:2462–2466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Stein A, Kruszewska D, Gouvernet J, Raoult D (1997) Study of the 16S–23S ribosomal DNA internal spacer of Coxiella burnetii. Eur J Epidemiol 13:471–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stevenson HL, Labruna MB, Montenieri JA, Kosoy MY, Gage KL, Walker DH (2005) Detection of Rickettsia felis in a New World flea species, Anomiopsyllus nudata (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae). J Med Entomol 42:163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Varela AS, Luttrell MP, Howerth EW, Moore VA, Davidson WR, Stallknecht DE, Little SE (2004) First culture isolation of Borrelia lonestari, putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness. J Clin Microbiol 42:1163–1169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wedincamp J Jr, Foil LD (2002) Vertical transmission of Rickettsia felis in the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché). J Vector Ecol 27:96–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Whitlock JE, Fang QQ, Durden LA, Oliver JH Jr (2000) Prevalence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) from the Georgia coast and barrier islands. J Med Entomol 37:276–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Williams SG, Sacci JB Jr, Schriefer ME, Andersen EM, Fujioka KK, Sorvillo FJ, Barr AR, Azad AF (1992) Typhus and typhuslike (sic) rickettsiae associated with opossums and their fleas in Los Angeles County, California. J Clin Microbiol 30:1758–1762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Williams DC, Wills W, Durden LA, Gray EW (1999) Ticks of South Carolina (Acari: Ixodoidea). J Vector Ecol 24:224–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Yuasa Y, Yoshiie K, Takasaki T, Yoshida H, Oda H (1996) Retrospective survey of chronic Q fever in Japan by using PCR to detect Coxiella burnetii DNA in paraffin-embedded clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol 34:824–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Yunker CE, Clifford CM, Keirans JE, Thomas LA, Rice RCA (1979) Aranas Bay Virus, a new arbovirus of the Upolu serogroup from Ornithodoros capensis (Acari: Argasidae) in coastal Texas. J Med Entomol 16:453–460Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Will K. Reeves
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amanda D. Loftis
    • 1
  • Felicia Sanders
    • 2
  • Mark D. Spinks
    • 2
  • William Wills
    • 3
  • Amy M. Denison
    • 1
  • Gregory A. Dasch
    • 1
  1. 1.Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.South Carolina Department of Natural ResourcesSantee Coastal ReserveMcClellanvilleUSA
  3. 3.ColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations