Experimental & Applied Acarology

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 277–289 | Cite as

Spatial Distribution of Galls Caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Arctic Willows



The distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on three Salix species was studied. The factors influencing this distribution were analysed, i.e. willow species, study area and shoot length. Spatial pattern of gall distribution within the shoot was also examined. The study was conducted in Russia, Kola Peninsula. Densities of galls caused by A. tetanothrix differed significantly among willow species. Considerably higher gall density was recorded in the White Sea coast than in the Khibiny Mountains. This may be explained by the influence of a milder maritime climate that favors mite occurrence compared to a harsh and variable mountain climate that limits mite abundance. There was no relationship between the gall density and the shoot length. The highest density of galls was recorded on the inner offshoots; within the offshoot, there was a maximum density on the fifth leaf. This pattern was repeatable for all shoots studied, independent of the study area, willow species and length of shoots, suggesting the optimal conditions for A. tetanothrix exist on leaves in the middle part of a shoot. This distribution pattern may be an effect of the trade-off between the costs and benefits resulting from leaf quality and mite movement along the shoot. This hypothesis, however, needs to be tested experimentally.


Arctic Eriophyoid mites Generalised additive modelling Herbivore Kola Peninsula Pests Russia Salix 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Amrine, J., Stasny, T.A. 1994Catalog of the Eriophyoidea (AcarinaProstigmata) of the WorldIndira Publishing HouseMichiganGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amrine, J.W.,Jr., Manson, D.C.M. 1996

    Preparation, mounting and descriptive study of Eriophyoid mites

    Lindquist, E.E.Sabelis, M.W.Bruin, J. eds. Eriophyoid Mites – Their Biology, Natural Enemies and ControlElsevier Science Publ.Amsterdam383396
    Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bean W. 1991. Trees and Shrubs: Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boecklen, W., Mopper, S., Price, P.W. 1994Sex-biased herbivory in arroyo willow: are there general patterns among herbivores?Oikos71267272Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. 2002Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information Theoretic Approached.2Springer-VerlagNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Castagnoli, M. 1996

    Ornamental Coniferous and Shade Trees

    Lindquist, E.E.Sabelis, M.W.Bruin, J. eds. Eriophyoid Mites – Their Biology, Natural Enemies and ControlElsevier Science Publ.Amsterdam661672
    Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davies, J.T., Allen, G.R., Williams, M.A. 2001Intraplant distribution of Acalitus essigi (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on blackberries (Rubus fruticosus Agg.)Exp. Appl. Acarol25625693CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Bruyn, L., Scheirs, J., Verhagen, R. 2002Nutrient stress, host plant quality and herbivore performance of a leaf-mining fly on grassOecologia130594599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Demming-Adams, B., Adams, W.W.W. 1992Photoprotection and other responses of plants to high light stressAnnu. Rev. Plant Physiol43599626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Efron, B., Tibshirani, R.J. 1993An Introduction to the BootstrapChapman & HallLondonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elias T. 1980. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eliason, E.A., Porter, D.A. 2000Budburst phenology, plant vigorand host genotype effects on the leaf-galling generation of Callirhytis cornigera (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on pine oakEnviron. Entomol2911991207Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Faria, M.L., Fernandes, G.W. 2001Vigour of a dioecious shrub and attack by a galling herbivoreEcol. Entomol263745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fernandes, G.W., Lara, A.G.F. 1993Diversity of Indonesian gall-forming herbivores along altitudinal gradientsBiodivers. Lett1186192Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fluckiger W. and Braun S. 1999. Stress factors of urban trees and their relevance for vigour and predisposition for parasite attacks. In: Lemattre M., Lemattre P. and Lemaire F.(eds),Proceedings of the International Symposium on Urban Tree Health. Acta HorticulanaISHS, pp. 325–334.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fritz, R.S., Gaud, W.S., Sacchi, C.F., Price, P.W. 1987Patterns of intra- and interspecific association of gall-forming sawflies in relation to shoot size on their willow host plantOecologia73156169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fritz, R.S., Price, P.W. 1988Genetic variation among plants and insects community structure: willows and sawfliesEcology69845856Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fritz, R.S., Crabb, B.A., Hochwender, C.G. 2000Preference and performance of a gall-inducing sawfly: a test of the plant vigor hypothesisOikos89555563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fritz, R.S., Crabb, B.A., Hochwender, C.G. 2003Preference and performance of a gall-inducing sawfly: plant vigorsex, gall traits and phenologyOikos102601613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hastie, T.J., Tibshirani, R.J. 1990Generalized Additive ModelsChapman & Hall/CRCNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hjältén, J., Price, P. 1996The effect of pruning on willow growth and sawfly population densitiesOikos77549555Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Komarov V.L. (ed) 1934–1964. Flora SSSR. Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, MoskvaLeningrad.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kopelke, J., Amendt, J., Schoenrogge, K. 2003Patterns of interspecific associations of stem gallers on willowsDivers. Distribut9443453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koroleva, N.E. 1994Phytosociological survey of the tundra vegetation of the Kola Peninsula RussiaJ. Veg. Sci5803812Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Larcher, W. 1995Physiological Plant EcologySpringerBerlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ledin, S. 1996Willow wood properties, production and economyBiomass. Bioenerg117583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    De Lillo E. and Amrine J.W. 2004. Computerized catalogue of the Eriophyoidea. In preparation.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    McIntrye, P.J., Whitham, T.G. 2003Plant genotype affects long-term herbivore population dynamics and extinction: conservation implicationsEcology84311322Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Muraleedharan, N., Radhakrishnan, B., Devadas, V. 1988Vertical distribution of three species of eriophyoid mites on tea in southern IndiaExp. Appl. Acarol4359364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nalepa, A. 1889Beiträge zur Systematik der Phytopten. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademiae der WissenschaftenMathematish-naturwissenschaftliche KlasseWien98112156Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Newsholme, C. 1992Willows – The Genus SalixBatsfordUKGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nielsen, B.O., Ejlersen, A. 1977The distribution pattern of herbivory in a beech canopyEcol. Entomol2293299Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olofsson, J., Strengbom, J. 2000Response of galling invertebrates on Salix lanata to reindeer herbivoryOikos91493498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Orians, C.M., Fritz, R.S. 1996Genetic and soil-nutrient effects on the abundance of herbivores on willowOecologia105388396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pena, J.E., Baranowski, R.M. 1990Dispersion indices and sampling plans for the broad mite and citrus rust mite on limesEnviron. Entomol19378382Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Price, P.W. 1991The plant vigor hypothesis and herbivore attackOikos62244251Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Price, P.W., Ohgushi, T. 1995Preference and performance in a Phyllocolpa sawflythe willow, Salix miyabeana on HokkaidoRes. Popul. Ecol372328Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rhoades, D.F. 1979

    Evolution of plant chemical defense against herbivores

    Rosenthal, G.A.Janzen, D.H. eds. Herbivores – Their Interaction with Secondary Plant MetabolitesAcademic PressNew York354
    Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Roininen, H., Price, P., Bryant, J.P. 1997Response of galling insects to natural browsing by mammals in AlaskaOikos80481486Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Royle, D.J., Ostry, M.E. 1995Disease and pest control in the bioenergy crops poplar and willowBiomass. Bioenerg96979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Royalty, R.N., Perring, T.M. 1996

    Nature of damage and its assessments

    Lindquist, E.E.Sabelis, M.W.Bruin, J. eds. Eriophyoid Mites – Their Biology, Natural Enemies and ControlElsevier Science Publ.Amsterdam493512
    Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sabelis, M.W., Bruin, J. 1996

    Evolutionary ecology: life history patterns, food plant choice and dispersal

    Lindquist, E.E.Sabelis, M.W.Bruin, J. eds. Eriophyoid Mites – Their Biology, Natural Enemies and ControlElsevier Science Publ.Amsterdam329365
    Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Strauss, S.Y. 1990The role of plant genotypeenvironment and gender in resistance to a specialist chrysomelid herbivoreOecologia84111116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Szafer, W., Kulczyński, S., Pawĺowski, B. 1986Polish PlantsPWNWarsaw(in Polish).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    USDANRCS 2004. The PLANTS Database. Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data CenterBaton RougeLAUSA.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vuorisalo, T., Walls, M., Niemelä, P., Kuitunen, H. 1989Factors affecting mosaic distribution of galls of an eriophyid miteEriophyes laevisin alderAlnus glutinosaOikos55370374Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Walker, G.P, Voulgaropoulos, A.L., Phillips, P.A. 1992Distribution of citrus bud mite within lemon treesJ. Econ. Entomol8523892398Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Weisberg, S. 1980Applied Linear RegressionWileyNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Westphal, E., Manson, D.C.M. 1996

    Feeding effects on host plants: gall formation and other distortions

    Lindquist, E.E.Sabelis, M.W.Bruin, J. eds. Eriophyoid Mites – Their Biology, Natural Enemies and ControlElsevier Science Publ.Amsterdam231242
    Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    White, T.C.R. 1984The abundance of invertebrate herbivores in relationship to the availability of nitrogen in stressed food plantsOecologia6390105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Willson, M.F., O’Dowd, D.J. 1990The relationship of leaf size and shoot length in Prunus americana to leaf-galling by mitesAm. Midl. Nat123408413Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Avian Biology and Ecology, Institute of Enviromnental BiologyAdam Mickiewicz UniversityPoznańPoland
  2. 2.Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Institute of Environmental BiologyAdam Mickiewicz UniversityPoznańPoland

Personalised recommendations