Asia Pacific Journal of Management

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 843–868 | Cite as

Innovation and entrepreneurship in India: Understanding jugaad

  • Jaideep Prabhu
  • Sanjay Jain


In this paper, we use the term jugaad to describe the frugal, flexible, and inclusive approach to innovation and entrepreneurship emerging from India. We articulate why this method is appropriate within the Indian context and highlight similarities between jugaad and related types of innovation originating from other emerging (and developed) economies. Next, we identify different types of organizations that engage in jugaad and elucidate their abilities, or lack thereof, to undertake such innovation. Finally, we incorporate the notion of jugaad within current theorizing on innovation and entrepreneurship and outline an agenda for future research on this topic. Overall, we provide insights on a mode of innovating that is increasingly prevalent in India as well as certain economies around the world and take steps towards integrating this concept into the mainstream theory, practice, and policy discourses around innovation and entrepreneurship.


Jugaad Innovation Entrepreneurship India Emerging economies Growth 



We thank David Ahlstrom, Anil Nair, Orhun Guldiken, and Raza Mir for their detailed comments on earlier versions of this paper, and to Marc Ahlstrom of Burlington County College for his editorial assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Santa Clara UniversitySanta ClaraUSA

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