Applied Intelligence

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 583–606 | Cite as

An adaptive approach for decision making tactics in automated negotiation

  • Arash Bahrammirzaee
  • Amine Chohra
  • Kurosh Madani


In this paper, an adaptive decision making approach of three families of tactics has been proposed for bilateral negotiation: the time dependent tactics, behavior dependent tactics, and time independent tactics. These tactics are more adaptive to the environment’s changes (reservation interval, time deadline, opponent behavior). The suggested time dependent tactics take advantage from round based time continuity and dynamics aspects (features) integrated in their modelling. For suggested behavior dependent tactics, a new formalization based on the percentage of change was introduced, which helps agents to be more prudent in the environments with incomplete information comparing to previous behavior dependent tactics suggested by Faratin et al. (Int. J. Robotics Auton. Syst. 24(3–4):159–182, 1998). Concerning the new family of tactics which are completely independent from time, the agents compute their offers based on their reservation interval. These tactics are useful when there is no time deadline and, in addition, when the behavior of opponent agents doesn’t follow any negotiation equilibrium. Moreover, new experimental measures are suggested which are more useful for final evaluation. The experiments conducted in this paper, prove the applicability of all three families of tactic.


Artificial intelligence Negotiation Agent based automated negotiation Negotiation tactics 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arash Bahrammirzaee
    • 1
  • Amine Chohra
    • 1
  • Kurosh Madani
    • 1
  1. 1.Signals, Images, and Intelligent Systems Laboratory (LISSI / EA 3956), Senart Institute of TechnologyParis-East University (UPEC)LieusaintFrance

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