Applied Intelligence

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 705–726 | Cite as

Detection of JPEG double compression and identification of smartphone image source and post-capture manipulation

  • Qingzhong Liu
  • Peter A. Cooper
  • Lei Chen
  • Hyuk Cho
  • Zhongxue Chen
  • Mengyu Qiao
  • Yuting Su
  • Mingzhen Wei
  • Andrew H. Sung


Digital multimedia forensics is an emerging field that has important applications in law enforcement and protection of public safety and national security. In digital imaging, JPEG is the most popular lossy compression standard and JPEG images are ubiquitous. Today’s digital techniques make it easy to tamper JPEG images without leaving any visible clues. Furthermore, most image tampering involves JPEG double compression, it heightens the need for accurate analysis of JPEG double compression in image forensics.

In this paper, to improve the detection of JPEG double compression, we transplant the neighboring joint density features, which were designed for JPEG steganalysis, and merge the joint density features with marginal density features in DCT domain as the detector for learning classifiers. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method improves the detection performance. We also study the relationship among compression factor, image complexity, and detection accuracy, which has not been comprehensively analyzed before. The results show that a complete evaluation of the detection performance of different algorithms should necessarily include image complexity as well as the double compression quality factor.

In addition to JPEG double compression, the identification of image capture source is an interesting topic in image forensics. Mobile handsets are widely used for spontaneous photo capture because they are typically carried by their users at all times. In the imaging device market, smartphone adoption is currently exploding and megapixel smartphones pose a threat to the traditional digital cameras. While smartphone images are widely disseminated, the manipulation of images is also easily performed with various photo editing tools. Accordingly, the authentication of smartphone images and the identification of post-capture manipulation are of significant interest in digital forensics. Following the success of our previous work in JPEG double compression detection, we conducted a study to identify smartphone source and post-capture manipulation by utilizing marginal density and neighboring joint density features together. Experimental results show that our method is highly promising for identifying both smartphone source and manipulations.

Finally, our study also indicates that applying unsupervised clustering and supervised classification together leads to improvement in identifying smartphone sources and manipulations and thus provides a means to address the complexity issue of the intentional post-capture manipulation on smartphone images.


Image forensics JPEG double compression Image complexity Smartphone identification Classification Hierarchical clustering Support vector machine Source Marginal density Neighboring joint density 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qingzhong Liu
    • 1
  • Peter A. Cooper
    • 1
  • Lei Chen
    • 1
  • Hyuk Cho
    • 1
  • Zhongxue Chen
    • 2
  • Mengyu Qiao
    • 3
  • Yuting Su
    • 4
  • Mingzhen Wei
    • 5
  • Andrew H. Sung
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceSam Houston State UniversityHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mathematics and Computer ScienceSouth Dakota School of Mines and TechnologyRapid CityUSA
  4. 4.School of Electronic Information EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  5. 5.Department of Geological Sciences and EngineeringMissouri University of Science and TechnologyRollaUSA
  6. 6.Department of Computer Science and Institute for Complex Additive Systems AnalysisNew Mexico TechSocorroUSA

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