Applied Intelligence

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 57–74 | Cite as

Pattern matching with wildcards and gap-length constraints based on a centrality-degree graph



Pattern matching with wildcards is a challenging topic in many domains, such as bioinformatics and information retrieval. This paper focuses on the problem with gap-length constraints and the one-off condition (The one-off condition means that each character can be used at most once in all occurrences of a pattern in the sequence). It is difficult to achieve the optimal solution. We propose a graph structure WON-Net (WON-Net is a graph structure. It stands for a network with the weighted centralization measure based on each node’s centrality-degree. Its details are given in Definition 4.1) to obtain all candidate matching solutions and then design the WOW (WOW stands for pattern matching with wildcards based on WON-Net) algorithm with the weighted centralization measure based on nodes’ centrality-degrees. We also propose an adjustment mechanism to balance the optimal solutions and the running time. We also define a new variant of WOW as WOW-δ. Theoretical analysis and experiments demonstrate that WOW and WOW-δ are more effective than their peers. Besides, the algorithms demonstrate an advantage on running time by parallel processing.


Pattern matching Wildcards Length constraints One-off condition Centrality-degree 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Computer Science and Information EngineeringHefei University of TechnologyHefeiChina
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and TechnologyHefei Normal UniversityHefeiChina
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

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