A knowledge-based framework for multimedia adaptation
- 183 Downloads
Personalized delivery of multimedia content over the Internet opens new business perspectives for future multimedia applications and thus plays an important role in the ongoing MPEG-7 and MPEG-21 multimedia standardization efforts. Based on these standards, next-generation multimedia services will be able to automatically prepare the digital content before delivery according to the client's device capabilities, the network conditions, or even the user's content preferences. However, these services will have to deal with a variety of different end user devices, media formats, as well as with additional metadata when adapting the original media resources. In parallel, an increasing number of commercial or open-source media transformation tools will be available, capable of exploiting such descriptive metadata or dealing with new media formats; thus it is not realistic that a single tool will support all possible transformations.
In this paper, we present a novel, fully knowledge-based approach for building such multimedia adaptation services, addressing the above mentioned issues of openness, extensibility, and concordance with existing and upcoming standards. In our approach, the original media is transformed in multiple adaptation steps performed by an extensible set of external tools, where the construction of adequate adaptation sequences is solved in an Artificial Intelligence planning process. The interoperability issue is addressed by exploiting standardized Semantic Web Services technology. This technology allows us to express tool capabilities and execution semantics in a declarative and well-defined form. In this context, existing multimedia standards serve as a shared domain ontology.
The presented approach was implemented and successfully evaluated in an official ISO/IEC MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) Core Experiment and is currently under further evaluation by the standardization body.
KeywordsMultimedia applications Knowledge-based systems Semantic web services Planning
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.M. Addis, M. Boniface, S. Goodall, P. Grimwood and S. KimP. Lewis, K. Martinez,and A. Stevenson, “SCULPTEUR: Towards a new paradigm for multimediamuseum information handling.” in Proceedings of the International Semantic Web Conference2003, FL, USA, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2870, pp. 582–596, 2003.Google Scholar
- 2.T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler and O. Lassila, “The semantic web,” Scientific American, Vol. 284, pp. 34–43, 2001.Google Scholar
- 3.E. Bertino and E. Ferrariand M. Stolf, “MPGS: An interactive tool for thespecification and generation of multimedia presentations,” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol.12, No. 1, pp. 102–125, 1994.Google Scholar
- 5.L. Boeszoermeny, H. Hellwagner, H. Kosch and M. Libsieand S. Podlipnig, “Metadata Driven Adaptation in the ADMITS Project.” EURASIP Signal Processing: Image Communication, Special Issue on Multimedia Adaptation, Vol. 18, pp. 749–766, 2003.Google Scholar
- 6.B. Bonet and H. Geffner“Faster heuristic search algorithms forplanning with uncertainty and full feedback,”in Int. Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence(IJCAI-2003). Acapulco, Mexico, pp. 1233–1238, 2003.Google Scholar
- 7.J. Bormans (ed.), MPEG-21 Requirements v 1.5 ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG11 N5873, Trondheim: Norway, 2003.Google Scholar
- 8.I. Bratko Prolog Programming for Artificial Intelligence, 3rdedn., Addison-Wesley, 2000.Google Scholar
- 9.I. Burnett, R.V. de Walle, K. Hill and J. Bormansand F. Pereira,“MPEG-21: Goals and achievements,” IEEE MultiMedia Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.Google Scholar
- 11.J.M.L. Cobo and S. Losada,Ó. Corcho, V.R. Benjamins, M. Ni,ño, and J.Contreras, “SWS for Financial Overdrawn Alerting,” in International Semantic Web Conference, pp. 782–796, 2004.Google Scholar
- 12.H. Eidenberger and C. Breiteneder“VizIR,—A Framework for VisualInformation Retrieval,” Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, Vol. 14, pp. 443–469, 2003.Google Scholar
- 13.M. Fox and D. Long“PDDL2.1: An extension to PDDL for expressingtemporal planning domains,” Journal on Artificial Intelligence Research, Vol. 20, pp. 61–124, 2003.Google Scholar
- 15.ISO/IEC 15938-5:2003, Information Technology—Multimedia ContentDescription Interface,—Part 5: Multimedia Description Schemes, 2003.Google Scholar
- 16.ISO/IEC 21000-5:2003, Information Technology,—MultimediaFramework,—Part 5: Rights Expression Language, 2003.Google Scholar
- 17.ISO/IEC 21000-6:2003, Information Technology,—MultimediaFramework,—Part 6: Rights Data Dictionary, 2003.Google Scholar
- 18.ISO/IEC 21000-7:2004, Information Technology - MultimediaFramework,—Part 7: Digital Item Adaptation, 2004.Google Scholar
- 19.D. Jannach and K. Leopold“A multimedia adaptation framework based onsemantic web technology,” in Workshop on Multimedia and the Semantic Web, held inconjunction with 2nd European Semantic Web Conference, 2005.Google Scholar
- 20.D. Jannach and K. Leopoldand H. Hellwagner, “An extensible framework forknowledge-based multimedia adaptation,” in Proceedings of 14th Conference on Industrial and EngineeringApplications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems (IEA/AIE), LectureNotes in Artificial Intelligence 2070, pp. 434–444, 2004.Google Scholar
- 21.I. Kompatsiaris and V. Mezarisand M.G. Strintzis, “Multimedia contentindexing and retrieval using an object ontology” in G. Stamou (ed.), Multimedia Content and Semantic Web,—Methods, Standards and Tools, New York, USA, 2004.Google Scholar
- 23.D.L. McGuiness F. van Harmelen (eds.), “OWL Web ontology languageoverview. Technical report,” http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/. 2004.
- 24.S. McIlraith and T. Sonand H. Zeng, “Semantic Web Services” IEEE Intelligent Systems, Special Issue on the Semantic Web,Vol. 16, pp. 46–53, 2001.Google Scholar
- 25.V. Mezaris and I. Kompatsiarisand M.G. Strintzis, “Region-based imageretrieval using an object ontology and relevance feedback,” EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Special Issue on Object-Based and Semantic Image and Video Analysis, pp. 886–901, 2004.Google Scholar
- 26.Y. Qu X. Zhang and H. Li, “OREL: AN ontology-based rights expressionlanguage,” in Proceedings of the 2004 ACM World Wide Web Conference(WWW,'2004) Alternate Track Papers and Posters, pp. 324–425, 2004.Google Scholar
- 27.G. Rust and C. Barlas“The MPEG-21 Rights data dictionary” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 7, No. 2. 2005.Google Scholar
- 28.P. Schojer, L. Boeszoermenyi, H. Hellwagner and B. Penzand S. Podlipnig, “Architecture of a quality based intelligent proxy (QBIX) for MPEG-4videos,” in Proceedings of the 2003 ACM World Wide Web Conference (WWW,'2003), Budapest, Hungary, pp. 394–402, 2003.Google Scholar
- 29.M. Sheshagiri and N. Sadehand F. Gandon, “Using semantic Web Services for context-aware mobile applications,” in Proceedings of MobiSys2004 Workshop on Context Awareness. Boston, USA, pp. 782–796, 2004.Google Scholar
- 30.P. Soetens and M.D. Geyter, “Applying domain knowledge to multi-step media adaptation based on Semantic Web Services,” in Proceedings of Workshop on Image Analysis for Multi-media Interactive Systems (WIAMIS)Montreux, Switzerland, 2005.Google Scholar
- 31.O. Steiger and D.M. Sanjunand T. Ebrahimi, “MPEG-based personalized content delivery,” in Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, ICIP 2003, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 14–16, 2003.Google Scholar
- 33.C., Timmerer, T. DeMartini, and C. Barlas (eds.), Information Technology—Multimedia Framework (MPEG-21),—Part 7: Digital Item Adaptation, AMENDMENT 1: DIA Conversions and Permissions, 2005.Google Scholar
- 34.A. Vetro and C. Christopoulosand T. Ebrahami (eds.), IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Special Issue on Universal Multimedia Access, Vol. 20, 2003.Google Scholar
- 35.A. Vetro and C. Christopoulosand H. Sun, “Video transcoding architectures and techniques: An overview,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 18–29, 2003.Google Scholar
- 36.A. Vetro and C. Timmerer “Digital item adaptation: Overview of standardization and research activities,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2005.Google Scholar
- 37.X. Wang, T. DeMartini and B. Wraggand M. Paramasivam, “The MPEG-21 rights expression language,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2005.Google Scholar