Applied Intelligence

, 27:131 | Cite as

Specification, analysis and simulation of the dynamics within an organisation

  • Catholijn M. Jonker
  • Jan TreurEmail author
  • Wouter C. A. Wijngaards
Open Access


In this paper a modelling approach to the dynamics within a multi-agent organisation is presented. A declarative, executable specification language for dynamics within an organisation is proposed as a basis for simulation. Moreover, to be able to specify and analyse dynamic properties within an organisation, another declarative specification language is put forward, which is much more expressive than the executable language for simulations. Supporting tools have been implemented that consist of a software environment for simulation of organisation models and a software environment for analysis of dynamic properties against traces of dynamics within an organisation.


Organisation modelling Dynamics Simulation 


  1. 1.
    Barringer H, Fisher M, Gabbay D, Owens R, Reynolds M (1996) The imperative future: principles of executable temporal logic, Research Studies Press Ltd. and John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bosse T, Jonker CM, van der Meij L, Treur J (2005) LEADSTO: a language and environment for analysis of dynamics by simulaTiOn. In: Eymann T, Kluegl F, Lamersdorf W, Klusch M, Huhns MN (eds) Proc. of the third german conference on multi-agent system technologies, MATES’05. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 3550. Springer Verlag, pp 165–178Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bosse T, Jonker CM, van der Meij L, Sharpanskykh A, Treur J (2006) Specification and verification of dynamics in cognitive agent models. In: Proceedings of the sixth international conference on intelligent agent technology, IAT’06. IEEE Computer Society Press, to appear.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brazier FMT, Jonker CM, Treur J (2002) Principles of component-based design of intelligent agents. Data and Knowledge Engineering, 41:1–28. Also In: Cuena J, Demazeau Y, Garcia A, Treur J (eds) (2004) Knowledge engineering and agent technology. IOS Press, pp 89–113Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brazier FMT, Jonker CM, Jüngen FJ, Treur J (1999) Distributed scheduling to support a call centre: a co-operative multi-agent approach. In: Nwana HS, Ndumu DT (eds) Applied artificial intelligence journal, vol. 13. Special Issue on Multi-Agent Systems, pp 65–90Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bouajjani A, Lakhnech Y, Yovine S (1996) Model checking for extended timed temporal logic. In: Jonsson B, Parrow J (eds) Proc. of the 4th international symposium formal techniques in real-time and fault-tolerant systems, FTRTFT’96, Uppsala, Sweden, September 1996. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1135, Springer-Verlag, pp 306–326Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clarke EM, Grumberg O, Peled DA (2000) Model checking. MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ferber J, Gutknecht O (1998) A meta-model for the analysis and design of organisations in multi-agent systems. In: Demazeau Y (ed) Proc of the third international conference on multi-agent systems (ICMAS ’98) Proceedings. IEEE Computer Society, pp 128–135Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferber J, Gutknecht O (2000) Operational semantics of a role-based agent architecture. In: Jennings NR, Lesperance Y (eds) Intelligent Agents IV, Proceedings of the 6th Int. Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures and Languages. Lecture Notes in AI, vol. 1757, Springer-Verlag, pp 205–217.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferber J, Gutknecht O, Jonker CM, Müller JP, Treur J (2000) Organisation models and behavioural requirements specification for multi-agent systems. In: Demazeau Y, Garijo F (eds) Multi-agent system organisations. Proc. of the 10th European workshop on modelling autonomous agents in a multi-agent world, MAAMAW’01, pp 1–19.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferber J, Gutknecht O, Michel F (2004) From agents to organizations: an organizational view of multi-agent systems. In: Giorgini P, Muller JP, Odell J (eds) Agent-oriented software engineering IV: Proc. of the fourth international workshop, AOSE 2003, Lecture Notes in AI, vol 2935, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2004, pp 214–230Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fisher M (1994) A survey of concurrent metateM—the language and its applications. In: Gabbay DM, Ohlbach HJ (eds) Temporal logic—proceedings of the first international conference, Lecture Notes in AI, vol. 827, pp 480–505Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fisher M (2005) Temporal development methods for agent-based systems. J Auton Agents Multi-Agent Syst 10:41–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Galton A (2003) Temporal logic. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, URL:
  15. 15.
    Galton A (2006) Operators vs arguments: the ins and outs of reification. Synthese 150:415–441zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Henzinger T, Nicollin X, Sifakis J, Yovine S (1994) Symbolic model checking for real-time systems. Inf Comput 111(2):193–244, Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herlea DE, Jonker CM, Treur J, Wijngaards NJE (1999) Specification of behavioural requirements within compositional multi-agent system design. In: Garijo FJ, Boman M (eds) Multi-agent system engineering, Proc of the 9th european workshop on modelling autonomous agents in a multi-agent world, MAAMAW’99. Lecture Notes in AI, vol. 1647, Springer Verlag, pp 8–27Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Herlea Damian DE, Jonker CM, Treur J, Wijngaards NJE (2005) Integration of behavioural requirements specification within compositional knowledge engineering. Knowl-Based Syst J 18:353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hölldobler S, Thielscher M (1990) A new deductive approach to planning. New Gener Comput 8:225–244zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hodkinson I, Reynolds M (2005) Separation – past, present and future. In: Artemov S, Barringer H, d’Avila Garcez AS, Lamb LC, Woods J (eds) We will show them: essays in honour of Dov Gabbay, Vol 2. College Publications, pp 117–142Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jonker CM, Letia IA, Treur J (2002) Diagnosis of the dynamics within an organisation by trace checking of behavioural requirements. In: Wooldridge M, Weiss G, Ciancarini P (eds) Proc. of the 2nd international workshop on agent-oriented software engineering, AOSE’01. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2222. Springer Verlag, pp 17–32Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jonker CM, Treur J (2002) Compositional verification of multi-agent systems: A formal analysis of pro-activeness and reactiveness. Int J Coop Inf Syst 11:51–92. Earlier shorter version in: de Roever WP, Langmaack H, Pnueli A (eds) (1998) Proceedings of the international workshop on compositionality, COMPOS’97. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag, vol. 1536, pp 350–380Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jonker CM, Treur J (2003) Relating structure and dynamics in an organisation model. In: Sichman JS, Bousquet F, Davidson P (eds) Multi-Agent-Based Simulation II, Proc. of the third international workshop on multi-agent based simulation, MABS’02. Lecture Notes in AI, vol. 2581, Springer Verlag, pp 50–69Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kowalski R, Sergot M (1986) A logic-based calculus of events. New Gener Comput 4:67–95Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Manna Z, Pnueli A (1995) Temporal verification of reactive systems: safety. Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    McCarthy J, Hayes P (1969) Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence. Mach Intell 4:463–502zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moss S, Gaylard H, Wallis S, Edmonds B (1998) SDML: A multi-agent language for organizational modelling. Comput Math Organ Theory 4(1):43–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Port RF, van Gelder T (eds) (1995) Mind as motion: explorations in the dynamics of cognition. MIT Press, Cambridge, MassGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Prietula M, Gasser L, Carley K (1997) Simulating organizations. MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reiter R (2001) Knowledge in action: Logical oundations for specifying and implementing dynamical systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stirling C (2001) Modal and temporal properties of processes. Springer VerlagGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yovine S (1997) Kronos: a verification tool for real-time systems. Int J Softw Tools Technol Transfer 1:123–133zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catholijn M. Jonker
    • 1
  • Jan Treur
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wouter C. A. Wijngaards
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of AIVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations