Stakeholder Perspectives on Implementing Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training on Assertive Community Treatment Teams

  • David H. SommerfeldEmail author
  • Gregory A. Aarons
  • Jeanean B. Naqvi
  • Jason Holden
  • Dimitri Perivoliotis
  • Kim T. Mueser
  • Eric Granholm
Original Article


This study examined stakeholder perceptions of the “fit” between cognitive-behavioral social skills training (CBSST) and assertive community treatment (ACT) when implementing CBSST into existing community-based ACT teams. Focus group feedback was collected from a diverse set of stakeholders (i.e., clients, providers, supervisors, agency administrators, public sector representatives, and intervention developers). Results identified perceived client and provider benefits for integrating CBSST into ACT while highlighting the importance of purposeful adaptations, training, and implementation tools to facilitate structural and values fit between CBSST and ACT. Study findings will inform future endeavors to implement CBSST and other relevant EBPs into ACT. Trial Registry: #NCT02254733.


Schizophrenia Cognitive behavioral social skills training Assertive community treatment Implementation Intervention fit 



We thank the participants who volunteered for this study. Research reported in this publication was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, Rehabilitation Research and Development Service, the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health (Grant R01MH091057-05 to Dr. Granholm). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or National Institutes of Health. Dr. Granholm has an equity interest in Granholm Consulting, Inc., a company that may potentially benefit from the research results as he receives income from the company for CBSST workshops and consulting and royalties for a CBSST book. The terms of this arrangement have been reviewed and approved by the University of California, San Diego in accordance with its conflict of interest policies.


This study was funded by the Veterans Medical Research Foundation (5R01MH091057-05).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

David H. Sommerfeld, Gregory A. Aarons, Jeanean Naqvi, Dimitri Perivoliotis and Kim Mueser declare that they have no conflict of interest. Jason Holden conducts CBSST training workshops as a paid consultant and receives royalties from Guildford Press for CBSST book sales. Eric Granholm conducts CBSST training workshops as a paid consultant through Granholm Consulting Inc. and receives royalties from Guildford Press for CBSST book sales.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David H. Sommerfeld
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gregory A. Aarons
    • 1
  • Jeanean B. Naqvi
    • 2
  • Jason Holden
    • 1
  • Dimitri Perivoliotis
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kim T. Mueser
    • 4
  • Eric Granholm
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Psychology ServiceVeterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA
  4. 4.Center for Psychiatric RehabilitationBoston UniversityBostonUSA

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