Influences to ADHD Problem Recognition: Mixed-Method Investigation and Recommendations to Reduce Disparities for Latino Youth

  • Lauren M. HaackEmail author
  • Jocelyn Meza
  • Yuanyuan Jiang
  • Eva Jimenez Araujo
  • Linda Pfiffner
Original Article


ADHD problem recognition serves as the first step of help seeking for ethnic minority families, such as Latinos, who underutilize ADHD services. The current mixed-method study explores underlying factors influencing recognition of ADHD problems in a sample of 159 school-aged youth. Parent-teacher informant discrepancy results suggest that parent ethnicity, problem domain, and child age influence ADHD problem recognition. Emerging themes from semi-structured qualitative interviews/focus groups conducted with eighteen Spanish-speaking Latino parents receiving school-based services for attention and behavior concerns support a range of recognized ADHD problems, beliefs about causes, and reactions to ADHD identification. Findings provide recommendations for reducing disparities in ADHD problem recognition and subsequent help seeking.


ADHD Latinos Disparities Mixed-method Evaluation 



This study was funded by a United States (U.S.) Department of Education Grant (R324A120358; PI: Pfiffner) and a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) for Individual Postdoctoral Fellows (1F32MH101971-01; PI: Haack). This manuscript was prepared during Dr. Haack’s NIH Fogarty Global Health Fellowship (NIH/FIC 5R25TW009343).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Research Involving Human and Animal Participants

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)San FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.University of California Berkeley and UCSFBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.University of AlbertaAlbertaCanada
  4. 4.University Autonomous of SinaloaCuliacánMexico

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