Advertisement

Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Transformational Leadership: Relationship with Organizational Culture in Mental Health

  • Gregory A. AaronsEmail author
  • Mark G. Ehrhart
  • Lauren R. Farahnak
  • Marisa Sklar
  • Jonathan Horowitz
Original Article

Abstract

The role of leadership in the management and delivery of health and allied health services is often discussed but lacks empirical research. Discrepancies are often found between leaders’ self-ratings and followers’ ratings of the leader. To our knowledge no research has examined leader–follower discrepancies and their association with organizational culture in mental health clinics. The current study examines congruence, discrepancy, and directionality of discrepancy in relation to organizational culture in 38 mental health teams (N = 276). Supervisors and providers completed surveys including ratings of the supervisor transformational leadership and organizational culture. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis models were computed examining the associations of leadership discrepancy and defensive organizational culture and its subscales. Discrepancies between supervisor and provider reports of transformational leadership were associated with a more negative organizational culture. Culture suffered more where supervisors rated themselves more positively than providers, in contrast to supervisors rating themselves lower than the provider ratings of the supervisor. Leadership and leader discrepancy should be a consideration in improving organizational culture and for strategic initiatives such as quality of care and the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.

Keywords

Leadership Discrepancy Organizations Management Public sector Mental health 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grants R01MH072961; R21MH082731; R21MH098124; K01MH001695. The authors thank the community stakeholders, providers, and supervisors who participated in this study.

References

  1. Aarons, G. A., Ehrhart, M. G., & Farahnak, L. R. (2014). The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS): Development of a brief measure of unit level implementation leadership. Implementation Science, 9(1), 45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Aarons, G. A., Ehrhart, M. G., Farahnak, L. R., & Hurlburt, M. S. (2015). Leadership and organizational change for implementation (LOCI): a randomized mixed method pilot study of a leadership and organization development intervention for evidence-based practice implementation. Implementation Science, 10(1), 11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Aarons, G. A., & Sawitzky, A. C. (2006a). Organizational climate partially mediates the effect of culture on work attitudes and staff turnover in mental health services. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 33(3), 289–301.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Aarons, G. A., & Sawitzky, A. C. (2006b). Organizational culture and climate and mental health provider attitudes toward evidence-based practice. Psychological Services, 3(1), 61–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonakis, J., & House, R. J. (2002). An analysis of the full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B. J. Avolio & F. J. Yammarino (Eds.), Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead (pp. 3–34). Amsterdam: JAI.Google Scholar
  6. Ashford, S. J. (1986). Feedback seeking in individual adaptation: A resource perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 29(3), 465–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashford, S. J. (1993). The feedback environment: An exploratory study of cue use. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 201–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashford, S. J., & Tsui, A. S. (1991). Self-regulation for managerial effectiveness: The role of active feedback seeking. Academy of Management Journal, 34(2), 251–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashkanasy, N. M., Wilderom, C. P. M., & Peterson, M. F. (2000). Handbook of organizational culture and climate. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Atwater, L. E., Roush, P., & Fischthal, A. (1995). The influence of upward feedback on self and follower ratings of leadership. Personnel Psychology, 48(1), 35–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atwater, L. E., Waldman, D. A., Ostroff, C., Robie, C., & Johnson, K. M. (2005). Self-other agreement: Comparing its relationship with performance in the U.S. and Europe. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13(1), 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Atwater, L. E., Wang, M., Smither, J. W., & Fleenor, J. W. (2009). Are cultural characteristics associated with the relationship between self and others’ ratings of leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 876–886.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Atwater, L. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (1992). Does self-other agreement on leadership perceptions moderate the validity of leadership and performance predictions. Personnel Psychology, 45(1), 141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1995). MLQ: Multifactor leadership questionnaire (Technical Report). Binghamton University, NY: Center for Leadership Studies.Google Scholar
  16. Bass, B. M., & Yammarino, F. J. (1991). Congruence of self and others’ leadership ratings of Naval officers for understanding successful performance. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 40(4), 437–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buunk, B. P., & Van Yperen, N. W. (1991). Referential comparison, relational comparisons, and exchange orientation: Their relation to marital satisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17(6), 709–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Church, A. H. (1997). Managerial self-awareness in high-performing individuals in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 281–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooke, R. A., & Rousseau, D. M. (1988). Behavioral norms and expectations: A quantitative approach to the assessment of organizational culture. Group Organization Management, 13(3), 245–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cullen, K. L., Gentry, W. A., & Yammarino, F. J. (2015). Biased self-perception tendencies: self-enhancement/self-diminishment and leader derailment in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Applied Psychology, 64(1), 161–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Edwards, J. R. (2002). Alternatives to difference scores: Polynomial regression and response surface methodology. In F. Drasgow & N. W. Schmitt (Eds.), Advances in measurement and data analysis (pp. 350–400). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  22. Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 57(1), 61–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ehrhart, M. G., Schneider, B., & Macey, W. H. (2014). Organizational climate and culture: An introduction to theory, research, and practice. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Farmer, E. M. Z., Compton, S. N., Burns, J. B., & Robertson, E. B. (2002). Review of the evidence base for treatment of childhood psychopathology: Externalizing disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(6), 1267–1302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fleenor, J. W., McCauley, C. D., & Brutus, S. (1996). Self-other rating agreement and leader effectiveness. Leadership Quarterly, 7(4), 487–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Glisson, C., & James, L. (2002). The cross-level effects of culture and climate in human service teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 767–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Glisson, C., Landsverk, J., Schoenwald, S., Kelleher, K., Hoagwood, K., Mayberg, S., & Green, P. (2008). Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of mental health services: Implications for research and practice. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. Special Issue: Improving mental health services, 35(1–2), 98–113.Google Scholar
  28. Hanser, L. M., & Muchinsky, P. M. (1978). Work as an information environment. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 21, 43–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harris, M. M., & Schaubroeck, J. (1988). A meta-analysis of self-supervisor, self-peer, and peer-supervisor ratings. Personnel Psychology, 41(1), 43–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. House, R. J., Dorfman, P. W., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. J., & de Luque, M. F. S. (2013). Strategic leadership across cultures: GLOBE study of CEO leadership behavior and effectiveness in 24 countries. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Jourard, S. M., & Landsman, T. (1980). Healthy personality: An approach from the viewpoint of humanistic psychology (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Keyton, J. (2010). Communication and organizational culture: A key to understanding work experiences. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  33. Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1121–1134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Litwin, G., & Stringer, R. (1968). Motivation and organizational climate. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  35. London, M. (2002). Leadership development: Paths to self-insight and professional growth. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.Google Scholar
  36. London, M., & Smither, J. W. (1995). Can multi-source feedback change perceptions of goal accomplishment, self-evaluations, and performance-related outcomes? Theory-based applications and directions for research. Personnel Psychology, 48(4), 803–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mabe, P. A., & West, S. G. (1992). Validity of self-evaluation of ability: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(3), 280–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martinko, M. J., & Gardner, W. L. (1987). The leader/member attribution process. Academy of Management Review, 12(2), 235–249.Google Scholar
  39. Mount, M. K. (1984). Psychometric properties of subordinate ratings of managerial performance. Personnel Psychology, 37(4), 687–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ostroff, C., Atwater, L. E., & Feinberg, B. J. (2004). Understanding self-other agreement: A look at rater and rate characteristics, context, and outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 57(2), 333–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Petkevičiūtė, N., & Giedraitis, A. (2013). Leadership skills formation in workgroup of the first level managers in manufacturing companies. Organizacijų Vadyba: Sisteminiai Tyrimai, 67, 69–82.Google Scholar
  42. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Priestland, A., & Hanig, R. (2005). Developing first-level leaders. Harvard Business Review, 83(6), 112–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Riggio, R. E., & Cole, E. J. (1992). Agreement between subordinate and superior ratings of supervisory performance and effects on self and subordinate job satisfaction. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65(2), 151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schulz, D. (1977). Growth psychology: Models of the healthy personality. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  47. Sedikides, C., & Gregg, A. P. (2008). Self-enhancement: Food for thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(2), 102–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Shanock, L. R., Allen, J. A., Dunn, A. M., Baran, B. E., Scott, C. W., & Rogelberg, S. G. (2013). Less acting, more doing: How surface acting relates to perceived meeting effectiveness and other employee outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(4), 457–476.Google Scholar
  49. Shanock, L. R., Baran, B. E., Gentry, W. A., Pattison, S. C., & Heggestad, E. D. (2010). Polynomial regression with response surface analysis: A powerful approach for examining moderation and overcoming limitations of difference scores. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(4), 543–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sosik, J. J., & Megerian, L. E. (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance: The role of self-other agreement on transformational leadership perceptions. Group and Organization Management, 24(3), 367–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Swann, W. B., & Read, S. J. (1981). Self-verification processes: How we sustain our self-conceptions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17(4), 351–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103(2), 193–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Thornton, G. C. (1980). Psychometric properties of self-appraisals of job performance. Personnel Psychology, 33(2), 263–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tornow, W. W. (1993). Editor’s note: Introduction to special issues on 360-degree feedback. Human Resource Management, 32(2–3), 211–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tsui, A. S., Zhang, Z.-X., Wang, H., Xin, K. R., & Wu, J. B. (2006). Unpacking the relationship between CEO leadership behavior and organizational culture. Leadership Quarterly, 17, 113–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yammarino, F. J., & Atwater, L. E. (1993). Understanding self-perception accuracy: Implications for human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 32(2–3), 231–247.Google Scholar
  57. Zohar, D., & Tenne-Gazit, O. (2008). Transformational leadership and group interaction as climate antecedents: A social network analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 744–757.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory A. Aarons
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mark G. Ehrhart
    • 2
  • Lauren R. Farahnak
    • 1
    • 3
  • Marisa Sklar
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jonathan Horowitz
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.San Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Child & Adolescent Services Research CenterSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations