Effectiveness of Health System Services and Programs for Youth to Adult Transitions in Mental Health Care: A Systematic Review of Academic Literature

  • Mark G. Embrett
  • Glen E. Randall
  • Christopher J. Longo
  • Tram Nguyen
  • Gillian Mulvale
Original Article

Abstract

Youth shifting to adult mental health services often report experiencing frustrations with accessing care that adequately replaces the youth services they had received. This systematic review assesses the peer reviewed evidence on services/programs aimed at addressing youth to adult transitions in mental health services. Findings suggest little data exists on the effectiveness of transition services/programs. While the available evidence supports meetings between youth and youth caseworkers prior to transitions occurring, it also verifies that this is not common practice. Other identified barriers to effective transitions were categorized as logistical (ineffective system communication), organizational (negative incentives), and related to clinical governance.

Keywords

Transition to adulthood Transition services Continuity of care Transition planning Program evaluation 

References

  1. Broad, B. (1999). Improving the health of children and young people leaving care. Adoption & Fostering, 23(1), 40–48. doi:10.1177/030857599902300107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burns, T., Catty, J., White, S., Clement, S., Ellis, G., Jones, I. R.,… Wykes, T. (2009). Continuity of care in mental health: understanding and measuring a complex phenomenon. Psychological Medicine, 39(2), 313–323. doi:10.1017/S0033291708003747.
  3. Cameron, A., & Lart, R. (2012). Revisiting joint working. Journal of Integrated Care, 20(2), 89–93. doi:10.1108/14769011211220490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Mental health surveillance among children–United States, 2005-2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries (Washington, D.C.: 2002), 62(2), 1–35.Google Scholar
  5. Children’s Mental Health Ontario. (2013). Easing transitions for children, youth and emerging adults vision (Vol. 34, pp. 1–6). Retrieved from www.kidsmentalhealth.ca/documents/transitions__final_jan2013.pdf.
  6. Davidson, S., & Cappelli, M. (2011). We’ve got growing up to do (p. 51). Retrieved from http://www.excellenceforchildandyouth.ca/sites/default/files/policy_growing_up_to_do.pdf.
  7. Davis, M. (2003). Addressing the needs of youth in transition to adulthood. Administration and Policy In Mental Health,. doi:10.1023/A:1025027117827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis, M., & Sondheimer, D. L. (2005). State child mental health efforts to support youth in transition to adulthood. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 32(1), 27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dieterich, M., & Irving, C. (2010). Intensive case management for severe mental illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, CD007906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dimitropoulos, G., Tran, A. F., Agarwal, P., Sheffield, B., & Woodside, B. (2013). Challenges in making the transition between pediatric and adult eating disorder programs: A qualitative study from the perspective of service providers. Eating Disorders, 21(1), 1–15. doi:10.1080/10640266.2013.741964.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eber, L., Sugai, G., Smith, C. R., & Scott, T. M. (2002). Wraparound and positive behavioral interventions and supports in the schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10(3), 171–180. doi:10.1177/10634266020100030501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gilmer, T. P., Ojeda, V. D., Fawley-King, K., Larson, B., & Garcia, P. (2012). Change in mental health service use after offering youth-specific versus adult programs to transition-age youths. Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.), 63(6), 592–596. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201100226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Government of Alberta. (2006). Positive futuresoptimizing mental health for Alberta’s children & youth (p. 20). Edmonton. Retrieved from http://www.health.alberta.ca/documents/Mental-Health-Framework-Child-06.pdf.
  14. Government of Ontario. (2009). Every door is the right door. Toronto. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/public/programs/mentalhealth/advisorygroup/docs/rep_everydoor.pdf
  15. Hacker, J. S. (2004). Dismantling the health care state? Political institutions, public policies and the comparative politics of health reform. British Journal of Political Science, 34(4), 693–724. doi:10.1017/S0007123404000250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haggerty, J. L., Reid, R. J., Freeman, G. K., Starfield, B. H., Adair, C. E., & McKendry, R. (2003). Continuity of care: A multidisciplinary review. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 327(7425), 1219–1221. doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7425.1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoagwood, K., & Burns, B. (2001). Evidence based practice in child and adolescent mental health services. Psychiatric Services, 52(9), 1179–1189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Horvitz-Lennon, M., Kilbourne, A. M., & Pincus, H. A. (2006). From silos to bridges: Meeting the general health care needs of adults with severe mental illnesses. Health Affairs (Project Hope), 25(3), 659–669. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.25.3.659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hovish, K., Weaver, T., Islam, Z., Paul, M., & Singh, S. P. (2012). Transition experiences of mental health service users, parents, and professionals in the United Kingdom: A qualitative study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 35(3), 251–257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hutchison, B., Abelson, J., & Lavis, J. (2001). Primary care in Canada: So much innovation, so little change. Health Affairs, 20(3), 116–131. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.20.3.116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Keane, M., & Viner, R. M. (1998). Youth matters: Evidence-based best practice for the care of young people in hospital. London: Caring for Children in the Health Services.Google Scholar
  22. Kmet, L. M., Lee, R. C., & Cook, L. S. (2004). Standard quality assessment criteria for evaluating primary research papers from a variety of fields. Edmonton: Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research.Google Scholar
  23. McGorry, P. (2011). Transition to adulthood: the critical period for pre-emptive, disease-modifying care for schizophrenia and related disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37(3), 524–530. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbr027.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. McGorry, P., Bates, T., & Birchwood, M. (2013). Designing youth mental health services for the 21st century: examples from Australia, Ireland and the UK. The British Journal of Psychiatry. Supplement, 54, s30–s35. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.119214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. McLaren, S., Belling, R., Paul, M., Ford, T., Kramer, T., Weaver, T., … Singh, S. P. (2013). “Talking a different language”: an exploration of the influence of organizational cultures and working practices on transition from child to adult mental health services. BMC Health Services Research, 13(1), 254. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-254.
  26. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ontario Legislative Assembly. (2010). Final report navigating the journey to wellness: The comprehensive mental health and addictions action plan for Ontarians. Ottawa. Retrieved from www.pspc.on.ca/pdf/InfoNote_New_Wellness.pdf
  28. Palinkas, L. A., Aaron, G. A., Horwitz, S., Chamberlain, P., Hurlburt, M., Landsverk, J., et al. (2011). Mixed method designs in implementation research. Administration and Policy In Mental Health, 38(1), 44–53. doi:10.1007/s10488-010-0314-z.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Paul, M., Ford, T., Kramer, T., Islam, Z., Harley, K., & Singh, S. P. (2013). Transfers and transitions between child and adult mental health services. The British Journal of Psychiatry. Supplement, 54, s36–s40. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.119198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Pettitt, B. (2003). Effective joint working between child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and schools. Nottingham: DFES Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Pottick, K. J., Bilder, S., Vander Stoep, A., Warner, L. A., & Alvarez, M. F. (2008). US patterns of mental health service utilization for transition-age youth and young adults. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 35(4), 373–389. doi:10.1007/s11414-007-9080-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Powell, R. R. (2006). Evaluation research: An overview. Library Trends, 55(1), 102–120. doi:10.1353/lib.2006.0050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rapley, P., & Davidson, P. M. (2010). Enough of the problem: A review of time for health care transition solutions for young adults with a chronic illness. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(3–4), 313–323. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03027.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Rees, G., & Huby, G. (2004). Joint working in community mental health teams: implementation of an integrated care pathway correspondence. Health & Social Care in the Community, 12(6), 527–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reilly, S., Planner, C., Hann, M., Reeves, D., Nazareth, I., & Lester, H. (2012). Transition experiences of mental health service users, parents, and professionals in the United Kingdom : A qualitative study. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e36468. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036468.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Singh, S. (2005). Mind the gap: the interface between child and adult mental health services. Psychiatric Bulletin, 29(8), 292–294. doi:10.1192/pb.29.8.292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Singh, S. (2009). Transition of care from child to adult mental health services: The great divide. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 22(4), 386–390. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32832c9221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Singh, S., Paul, M., Ford, T., Kramer, T., & Weaver, T. (2008). Transitions of care from child and adolescent mental health services to adult mental health services (TRACK Study): A study of protocols in Greater London. BMC Health Services Research, 8, 135. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-135.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Singh, S., Paul, M., Ford, T., Kramer, T., Weaver, T., McLaren, S., … White, S. (2010). Process, outcome and experience of transition from child to adult mental healthcare: multiperspective study. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 197(4), 305–312. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.075135.
  40. Smith, L., & Newton, R. (2007). Systematic review of case management. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(1), 2–9. doi:10.1080/00048670601039831.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sofaer, S. (1999). Qualitative methods: What are they and why use them? Health Services Research, 34(5), 1101–1118.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Steckler, A. (1989). The use of qualitative evaluation methods to test internal validity: An example in a work site health promotion program. Evaluation & the Health Professions.,. doi:10.1177/016327878901200201.Google Scholar
  43. Styron, T. H., O’Connell, M., Smalley, W., Rau, D., Shahar, G., Sells, D., … Davidson, L. (2006). Troubled youth in transition: An evaluation of Connecticut’s special services for individuals aging out of adolescent mental health programs. Children and Youth Services Review, 28(9), 1088–1101. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2005.10.010.
  44. Tolan, P. H., & Dodge, K. A. (2005). Children’s mental health as a primary care and concern: A system for comprehensive support and service. The American Psychologist, 60(6), 601–614. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.60.6.601.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. United Nations. (2013). Social inclusion of youth with mental health conditions. New York. Retrieved from http://undesadspd.org/Youth.aspx
  46. Young, S., Murphy, C. M., & Coghill, D. (2011). Avoiding the “twilight zone”: recommendations for the transition of services from adolescence to adulthood for young people with ADHD. BMC Psychiatry, 11(1), 174. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-11-174.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark G. Embrett
    • 1
    • 2
  • Glen E. Randall
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christopher J. Longo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tram Nguyen
    • 4
  • Gillian Mulvale
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Health Policy, Faculty of Health SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Centre for Health Economics and Policy AnalysisMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Health Policy and Management, DeGroote School of BusinessMcMasterUniversityHamiltonCanada
  4. 4.Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Rehabilitation Science and CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability ResearchMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations