A Comparison of Two Coaching Approaches to Enhance Implementation of a Recovery-Oriented Service Model

  • Frank P. DeaneEmail author
  • Retta Andresen
  • Trevor P. Crowe
  • Lindsay G. Oades
  • Joseph Ciarrochi
  • Virginia Williams
Original Article


Moving to recovery-oriented service provision in mental health may entail retraining existing staff, as well as training new staff. This represents a substantial burden on organisations, particularly since transfer of training into practice is often poor. Follow-up supervision and/or coaching have been found to improve the implementation and sustainment of new approaches. We compared the effect of two coaching conditions, skills-based and transformational coaching, on the implementation of a recovery-oriented model following training. Training followed by coaching led to significant sustained improvements in the quality of care planning in accordance with the new model over the 12-month study period. No interaction effect was observed between the two conditions. However, post hoc analyses suggest that transformational coaching warrants further exploration. The results support the provision of supervision in the form of coaching in the implementation of a recovery-oriented service model, and suggest the need to better elucidate the mechanisms within different coaching approaches that might contribute to improved care.


Implementation Transfer of training Transformational coaching Care planning Values 



This work was supported by the Australian Research Council [Grant Number LP0990708].

Conflict of interest

None for any author.


  1. Aarons, G., Hurlburt, M., & Horwitz, S. (2011). Advancing a conceptual model of evidence-based practice implementation in public service sectors. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(1), 4–23.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, G., & Renshaw, B. (2005). Super coaching: The missing ingredient for high performance. London: Random House Business.Google Scholar
  3. Andresen, R., Oades, L. G., & Caputi, P. (2003). The experience of recovery from schizophrenia: Towards an empirically-validated stage model. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 586–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andresen, R., Oades, L. G., & Caputi, P. (2011). Psychological recovery: Beyond mental illness. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blume, B. D., Ford, J. K., Baldwin, T. T., & Huang, J. L. (2010). Transfer of training: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Management, 36(4), 1065–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clarke, S. P., Crowe, T. P., Oades, L. G., & Deane, F. P. (2009). Do goal-setting interventions improve the quality of goals in mental health services? Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 32(4), 292–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crowe, T. P., Deane, F. P., Oades, L. G., Caputi, P., & Morland, K. G. (2006). Effectiveness of a collaborative recovery training program in australia in promoting positive views about recovery. Psychiatric Services, 57(10), 1497–1500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crowe, T. P., Oades, L. G., Deane, F. P., Ciarrocci, J., & Williams, V. (2011). Parallel processes in clinical supervision: Implications for coaching mental health practitioners. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching & Mentoring, 9(2), 56–66.Google Scholar
  9. Deane, F. P., Crowe, T. P., Oades, L. G., Ciarrochi, J., Marshall, S., Williams, V., et al. (2010). Facilitating the transfer of collaborative recovery training into clinical practice: Intervention and coaching protocols. Wollongong: Australia Illawarra Institute for Mental Health, University of Wollongong.Google Scholar
  10. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  11. Emmons, R. A. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns. New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Feinstein, A. R., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1990). High agreement but low kappa: I. The problems of two paradoxes. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 43(6), 543–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hawkins, P., & Smith, N. (2010). Transformational coaching. In E. Cox, T. Bachkirova, & D. Clutterbuck (Eds.), The complete handbook of coaching (pp. 231–244). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Herschell, A. D., Kolko, D. J., Baumann, B. L., & Davis, A. C. (2010). The role of therapist training in the implementation of psychosocial treatments: A review and critique with recommendations. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(4), 448–466.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kelly, P. (2007). Does homework improve outcomes for individuals diagnosed with severe mental illness? Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, University of Wollongong, Australia. Retrieved from Accessed 23 Aug 2013.
  16. Miller, W. R., Yahne, C. E., Moyers, T. B., Martinez, J., & Pirritano, M. (2004). A randomized trial of methods to help clinicians learn motivational interviewing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(6), 1050–1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morrissey, J., & Tribe, R. (2001). Parallel process in supervision. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 14(2), 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oades, L. G., & Crowe, T. P. (2008). Life journey enhancement tools (LifeJET). Wollongong: Illawarra Institute for Mental Health, University of Wollongong.Google Scholar
  19. Oades, L. G., Crowe, T. P., & Nguyen, M. (2009). Leadership coaching transforming mental health systems from the inside out: The collaborative recovery model as person-centred strengths based coaching psychology. International Coaching Psychology Review, 4(1), 25–36.Google Scholar
  20. Powell, B. J., McMillen, J. C., Proctor, E. K., Carpenter, C. R., Griffey, R. T., Bunger, A. C., et al. (2012). A compilation of strategies for implementing clinical innovations in health and mental health. Medical Care Research and Review, 69(2), 123–157.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Segers, J., Vloeberghs, D., Henderickx, E., & Inceoglu, I. (2011). Structuring and understanding the coaching industry: The coaching cube. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(2), 204–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (2001). Goals, congruence, and positive well-being: New empirical support for humanistic theories. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 41(1), 30–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sholomskas, D. E., Syracuse-Siewert, G., Rounsaville, B. J., Ball, S. A., Nuro, K. F., & Carroll, K. M. (2005). We don’t train in vain: A dissemination trial of three strategies of training clinicians in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(1), 106–115.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Uppal, S., Oades, L. G., Crowe, T. P., & Deane, F. P. (2010). Barriers to transfer of collaborative recovery training into australian mental health services: Implications for the development of evidence-based services. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 16(3), 451–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Viera, A. J., & Garrett, J. M. (2005). Understanding interobserver agreement: The kappa statistic. Family Medicine, 37(5), 360–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Whitmore, J. (2002). Coaching for performance (3rd ed.). London: Nicholas Brealey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank P. Deane
    • 1
    Email author
  • Retta Andresen
    • 1
  • Trevor P. Crowe
    • 2
  • Lindsay G. Oades
    • 3
  • Joseph Ciarrochi
    • 4
  • Virginia Williams
    • 2
  1. 1.Illawarra Institute for Mental HealthUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  2. 2.School of PsychologyUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  3. 3.Australian Institute of Business Wellbeing, Sydney Business SchoolUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  4. 4.School of Social Sciences and PsychologyUniversity of Western SydneyPenrithAustralia

Personalised recommendations