Burnout in Mental Health Services: A Review of the Problem and Its Remediation
- 5.9k Downloads
Staff burnout is increasingly viewed as a concern in the mental health field. In this article we first examine the extent to which burnout is a problem for mental health services in terms of two critical issues: its prevalence and its association with a range of undesirable outcomes for staff, organizations, and consumers. We subsequently provide a comprehensive review of the limited research attempting to remediate burnout among mental health staff. We conclude with recommendations for the development and rigorous testing of intervention approaches to address this critical area.
KeywordsBurnout Burnout prevention Mental health staff
This study was funded in part by an IP-RISP grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (R24 MH074670; Recovery Oriented Assertive Community Treatment). We also appreciate the assistance of Candice Hudson, L. Kay Webb, Bonnie Barbareck, and Dawn Hope Shimp in the preparation of this manuscript.
- Burke, R. J., & Richardsen, A. M. (1993). Psychological burnout in organizations. In R. T. Golembiewski (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
- Carney, J., Donovan, R., Yurdin, M., & Starr, R. (1993). Incidence of burnout among New York City intensive case managers: Summary of findings. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 16(4), 25–38.Google Scholar
- Carson, J., Cavagin, J., Bunclark, J., Maal, S., Gournay, K., Kuipers, E., et al. (1999). Effective communication in mental health nurses: Did social support save the psychiatric nurse? Nursing Times Research, 4(1), 31–42.Google Scholar
- Chemiss, C. (1980). Staff burnout: Job stress in the human services. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Emmons, R. A., & Shelton, C. M. (2001). Gratitude and the science of positive psychology. In C. Snyder & S. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 459–471). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Fallot, R. D., & Harris, M. (2008). Trauma informed approaches to systems of care. Trauma Psychology Newsletter, 3(1), 6–7.Google Scholar
- Feingold, A. (2005). Sustaining stamina at the interface of HIV and mental health practice. Mental Health AIDS, 6(2), 6–9.Google Scholar
- Feingold, A. (2008). Kicking it upstairs. Mental Health AIDS, 9(2), 8–9.Google Scholar
- Figley, C. R. (1995). Compassion fatigue as secondary traumatic stress disorder: An overview. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Compassion fatigue: Coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized (pp. 1–20). Philadelphia, PA, USA: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
- Goldmacher, S. (2009, November 19, 2009). California’s budget woes will continue for years, report says, The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-budget-deficit19-2009nov19,0,433593.story.
- Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Buckley, M. R. (2004). Burnout in organizational life. Journal of Management, 30(6), 859–879.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Bissett, R., Roget, N., Padilla, M., Kohlenberg, B. S., Fisher, G., et al. (2004a). The impact of acceptance and commitment training and multicultural training on the stigmatizing attitudes and professional burnout of substance abuse counselors. Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 821–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Follette, V. M., & Linehan, M. M. (2004b). Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford Publications, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hoge, M. A., Morris, J. A., Daniels, A. S., Stuart, G. W., Huey, L. Y., & Adams, N. (2007). An action plan for behavioral health workforce development: A framework for discussion. Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
- Kerns, C. D. (2006). Gratitude at work: Counting your blessings will benefit yourself and your organization. Graziado Business Review, 9(4). Retrieved from http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2010/08/gratitude-at-work/.
- Knudsen, H. K., Ducharme, L. J., & Roman, P. M. (2008). Clinical supervision, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention: A study of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 35(4), 387–395.Google Scholar
- Krasner, M. S., Epstein, R. M., Beckman, H., Suchman, A. L., Chapman, B., Mooney, C. J., et al. (2009). Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(12), 1284–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leiter, M. P., Laschinger, H. K. S., Day, A., & Oore, D. G. (in press). The impact of civility interventions on employee social behavior, distress, and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology.Google Scholar
- Maslach, C. (1993). Burnout: A multidimensional perspective. In W. B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach, & T. Marek (Eds.), Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research (pp. 19–32). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). Maslach burnout inventory manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
- Maslach, C., & Pines, A. (1979). Burnout, the loss of human caring. In A. Pines & C. Maslach (Eds.), Experiencing social psychology. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Pines, A., & Aronson, E. (1988). Career burnout: Causes and cures. New York, NY, USA: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Pines, A., & Maslach, C. (1978). Characteristics of staff burnout in mental health settings. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 29(4), 233–237.Google Scholar
- Prosser, D., Johnson, S., Kuipers, E., Szmukler, G., Bebbington, P., & Thornicroft, G. (1997). Perceived sources of work stress and satisfaction among hospital and community mental health staff, and their relation to mental health, burnout and job satisfaction. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 43(1), 51–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schwab, R. L., Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1986). Educator burnout: Sources and consequences. Educational Research Quarterly, 10, 15–30.Google Scholar
- Stalker, C., & Harvey, C. (2002). Professional burnout: A review of theory research, and prevention Partnerships for Children and Families Project. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar