Supporting Parents Who Have Youth with Emotional Disturbances Through a Parent-to-Parent Support Program: A Proof of Concept Study Using Random Assignment
- 815 Downloads
Poor outcomes for youth who have emotional disturbances (ED), especially for those youth who are placed in special education programs, are well documented. Parent Connectors is a parent-to-parent support program delivered through weekly telephone calls to families of youth with ED in special education programs, with the aim of increasing the engagement of parents in their child’s education and treatment and improving the academic and emotional functioning of the child. Findings from a proof of concept study using random assignment of participants yielded encouraging support for the clinical efficacy of the intervention. Results demonstrated enhanced outcomes for parents who were highly strained at the beginning of the study. Implications for future research in the area of parent support are provided.
KeywordsParent support Emotional disturbance Children’s mental health services Academic functioning
This study was supported in part by the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs, Grant number H324C040040.
- Anderson, J. A., Rivera, V. R., & Kutash, K. (1998). Measuring consumer satisfaction with children’s mental health. In M. H. Epstein, K. Kutash, & A. J. Duchnowski (Eds.), Outcomes for children and youth with behavioral and emotional disorders: Programs and evaluation best practices (pp. 455–482). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
- Bickman, L., Earl, E., & Klindworth, L. (1991). Vanderbilt mental health service self-efficacy questionnaire. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University.Google Scholar
- Bickman, L., Salzer, M. S., Lambert, E. W., Saunders, R., Summerfelt, W. T., Heflinger, C., et al. (1998b). Rejoinder to Mordock’s critique of the Ft. Bragg evaluation: The sample is generalizable and the outcomes are clear. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 29(1), 77–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Blackorby, J., & Wagner, M. (1996). Longitudinal postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities: Findings from the national longitudinal transition study. Exceptional Children, 62(5), 399–414.Google Scholar
- Borman, G. D., Hewes, G. M., Overman, L. T., & Brown, S. (2002). Comprehensive school reform and school achievement: A meta-analysis (Report No. 59). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk.Google Scholar
- Burns, B. J., & Kutash, K. (2000). Child and adolescent measures of functional status. In: A. J. Rush, M. B. First, & D. Blacker (Eds.), Handbook of psychiatric measures and outcomes (pp. 357–392). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Can Biotech, Inc. (2010, March 25). Glossary. A proof of concept study. Retrieved from http://www.canbiotech.com/showHTMP.asp?hpId=417.
- Capraro, M. M. (2005). An introduction to confidence introduction to intervals for both statistical estimates and effect sizes. Research in the Schools, 11(2), 22–33.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Cumming, G. (2001). Exploratory Software for Confidence Intervals (CIdelta) [Computer software]. Bundoora, AU: La Trobe University. Retrieved from http://www.latrobe.edu.au/psy/esci/.
- Cumming, G., & Fidler, F. (2009). Confidence intervals: Better answers to better questions. Journal of Psychology, 217(1), 15–26.Google Scholar
- Cumming, G., & Finch, S. (2001). A primer on the understanding, use, and calculation of confidence intervals that are based on central and noncentral distributions. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61(4), 532–574.Google Scholar
- Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). The Surgeon general’s report—chapter 3: Children and mental health. Mental health: A report of the surgeon general (pp. 124–220). Author.Google Scholar
- Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (1986a). Support functions scale—short version. Newton: Brookline Books.Google Scholar
- Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (1986b). Support functions scale: Reliability and validity. Asheville, NC: Winterberry Press.Google Scholar
- Elliot, D. J., Koroloff, N., Koren, P. D., & Friesen, B. (1998). Improving access to children’s mental health services: The family associate approach. In M. H. Epstein, K. Kutash, & A. J. Duchnowski (Eds.), Outcomes for children and youth with emotional disorders and their families: Programs and evaluation best practices (pp. 581–609). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
- Greenbaum, P. E., Dedrick, R. F., Friedman, R. M., Kutash, K., Brown, E. C., Lardieri, S. P., et al. (1998). National adolescent and child treatment study (NACTS): Outcomes for children with serious emotional disturbances. In M. H. Epstein, K. Kutash, & A. J. Duchnowski (Eds.), Outcomes for children and youth with behavioral and emotional disorders: Programs and evaluation best practices (pp. 21–54). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
- Heflinger, C., Northrup, D., Sonnichsen, S., & Brannan, A. M. (1998). Including a family focus in research on community-based services for children with serious emotional disturbance: Experience from the Fort Bragg evaluation project. In M. H. Epstein, K. Kutash, & A. J. Duchnowski (Eds.), Outcomes for children and youth with behavioral and emotional disorders: Programs and evaluation best practices (pp. 261–293). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
- Huff, B. (2004). Proof of concept studies/translational research; new hypotheses. Research Initiative/Treatment Action, 10(1), 24–25.Google Scholar
- Ireys, H., & Sakwa, D. D. (2006). Building family-to-family support programs: Rationale, goals, and challenges. Focal Point, 20(1), 10–14.Google Scholar
- Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision-makers. Tampa: The Research and Training Center for Children’s Mental Health; Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida.Google Scholar
- Kuypers, D. R., Claes, K., Evenepoel, P., Maes, B., & Vanrenterghem, Y. (2004). A prospective proof of concept study of the efficacy of tacrolimus ointment on uraemic pruritus (UP) in patients on chronic dialysis therapy. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, 19(9), 1895–1901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America (Final Report ed.). DHHS Pub. No SMA-03-3832, Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
- Newman, L. (2005). Family involvement in the educational development of youth with disabilities: A special topic report of findings from the national longitudinal transition study-2 (NLTS2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.Google Scholar
- Ogles, B. M., Melendez, G., Davis, D. C., & Lunnen, K. M. (1999). The Ohio youth problems, functioning, and satisfaction scale (short form). Ohio: Ohio University.Google Scholar
- Preyde, M., & Ardal, F. (2003). Effectiveness of a parent “buddy” program for mothers of very preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. Canadian Medical Association. Journal CMAJ, 168(8), 969–974.Google Scholar
- Robbins, V., Johnston, J., Barnett, H., Hobstetter, W., Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., et al. (2008). Parent to parent: A synthesis of emerging literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, The Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child and Family Studies.Google Scholar
- Simpson, R. L. (2004). Inclusion of students with behavior disorders in general education settings: Research and measurements issues. Behavior Disorders, 30(1), 19–31.Google Scholar
- United States Office of Special Education Programs. (2002). The children we serve: The demographic characteristics of elementary and middle school students with their disabilities and their households. Retrieved May 25, 2009, from http://www.seels.net/info_reports/children_we_serve.htm.
- Wagner, M., Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Epstein, M. H. (2005a). The special education elementary longitudinal study and the national longitudinal transition study: Study designs and implications for children and youth with emotional disturbance. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 13(1), 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wagner, M., Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., Epstein, M. H., & Sumi, W. C. (2005b). The children and youth we serve: A national picture of the characteristics of students with emotional disturbances receiving special education. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 13(2), 79–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wilkinson, G. S. (1993). Wide range achievement test (3rd ed.). Wilmington, DE: Wide Range.Google Scholar