Improving the Mental Health of Children in Child Welfare Through the Implementation of Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions

  • Sarah McCue Horwitz
  • Patricia Chamberlain
  • John Landsverk
  • Charlotte Mullican
Original Paper

Abstract

Any comprehensive approach to children’s mental health should consider services systems such as Child Welfare that provide services to children with high rates of emotional and behavioral disorders. This paper will review what is known about efficacious parent-focused interventions that can improve the lives of children in Child Welfare and explore possible reasons why such interventions are rarely used by Child Welfare agencies. Data from a pilot study suggest key features for increasing the implementation of efficacious practices to improve children’s mental health.

Keywords

Child welfare Implementation Effective interventions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by funding from the NIMH (P30-MH74678-01A2; PI: Landsverk). The findings and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

References

  1. Aarons, G. A., & Palinkas, L. A. (2007). Implementation of evidence-based practice in child welfare: Service provider perspectives. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 34(4), 411–419.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, P. (1994). Marketing social change: The case of family preservation. Children and Youth Services Review, 16(5/6), 417–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagner, D. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2007). Parent–child interaction therapy for disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(3), 418–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barth, R. P., Landsverk, J., Chamberlain, P., Reid, J. B., Rolls, J. A., Hurlburt, M. S., et al. (2005). Parent-training programs in child welfare services: Planning for a more evidence-based approach to serving biological parents. Research on Social Work Practice, 15, 353–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baydar, N., Reid, M. J., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2003). The role of mental health factors and program engagement in the effectiveness of a preventive parenting program for Head Start mothers. Child Development, 74(5), 1433–1453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berwick, D. M. (2003). Disseminating innovations in health care. JAMA, 289(15), 1969–1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bor, W., Sanders, M. R., & Markie-Dadds, C. (2002). The effects of the Triple P-positive parenting program on preschool children with co-occurring disruptive behavior and attentional/hyperactive difficulties. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(6), 571–587.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brestan, E. V., & Eyberg, S. M. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5, 272 kids. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(2), 180–189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, J. D., & Bednar, L. M. (2006). Foster parent perceptions of placement breakdown. Children and Youth Services Review, 28, 1497–1511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chadwick Center. (2004). Closing the quality chasm in child abuse treatment: Identifying and disseminating best practices. The findings of the Kauffman best practices project to help children heal from child abuse. San Diego, CA: Children’s Hospital-San Diego, Chadwich Center for Children and Families.Google Scholar
  11. Chaffin, M., & Friedrich, B. (2004). Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Children and Youth Services Review, 26, 1097–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chaffin, M., Silovsky, J. F., Funderburk, B., Valle, L. A., Brestan, E. V., Balachova, T., et al. (2004). Parent–child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(3), 500–510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chamberlain, P., Brown, C. H., Saldana, L., Reid, J., Wang, W., Marsenich, L., et al. (2008a). Engaging and recruiting counties in an experiment on implementing evidence-based practice in California. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 35(4), 250–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chamberlain, P., Leve, L. D., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2007). Multidimensional treatment foster care for girls in the juvenile justice system: 2-Year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 187–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chamberlain, P., Price, J., Leve, L. D., Laurent, H., Landsverk, J. A., & Reid, J. B. (2008b). Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: Outcomes and mediation effects. Prevention Science, 9, 17–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chamberlain, P., Price, J. M., Reid, J. B., Landsverk, J., Fisher, P. A., & Stoolmiller, M. (2006). Who disrupts from placement in foster and kinship care? Child Abuse and Neglect, 30, 409–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1991). Using a specialized foster care treatment model for children and adolescents leaving the state mental hospital. Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 266–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1994). Differences in risk factors and adjustment for male and female delinquents in Treatment Foster Care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 3(1), 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Home.Google Scholar
  20. Damanpour, F. (1991). Organizational innovation: A meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators. Academy of Management Journal, 34(3), 555–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davies, H. T. O., & Nutley, S. M. (2008). Learning more about how research-based knowledge gets used: Guidance in the development of new empirical research. New York, NY: William T. Grant Foundation.Google Scholar
  22. de Graaf, I., Speetjens, P., Smit, F., de Wolff, M., & Tavecchio, L. (2008). Effectiveness of the Triple P positive parenting program on behavioral problems in children: A meta-analysis. Behavior Modification, 32(5), 714–735.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. DePanfilis, D., & Dubowitz, H. (2005). Family connections: A program for preventing child neglect. Child Maltreatment, 10, 108–123.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Eddy, J. M., & Chamberlain, P. (2000). Family management and deviant peer association as mediators of the impact of treatment condition on youth antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 5(68), 857–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Edwards, A., & Lutzker, J. R. (2008). Iterations of the SafeCare model: An evidence-based child maltreatment prevention program. Behavior Modification, 32(5), 736–737.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ferlie, E. B., & Shortell, S. M. (2001). Improving the quality of healthcare in the United Kingdom and the United States: A framework for change. Milbank Quarterly, 79, 281–315.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fiester, L. (2008). The story of family to family. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. www.aecf.org. Accessed 4/10/2009.
  28. Fisher, P. A., Chamberlain, P., & Leve, L. D. (2009). Improving the lives of foster children through evidenced-based interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 4(2), 122–127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frambach, R., & Schillewaert, N. (2002). Organizational innovation adoption: A multi-level framework of determinants and opportunities for future research. Journal of Business Research, 55, 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gabbay, J., & le May, A. (2004). Evidence based guidelines or collectively constructed “mindlines?” Ethnographic study of knowledge management in primary care. BMJ, 329(7473), 1013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ganju, V. (2003). Implementation of evidence-based practices in state mental health systems: Implications for research and effectiveness studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29(1), 125–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gardner, F., Burton, J., & Klimes, I. (2006). Randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in the voluntary sector for reducing child conduct problems: Outcomes and mechanisms of change. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(11), 1123–1132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gelfand, D. M., & Teti, D. M. (1990). The effects of maternal depression on children. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 329–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gershater-Molko, R. M., Lutzker, J. R., & Wesch, D. (2002). Project SafeCare: Improving health, safety, and parenting skills in families reported for, and at-risk for child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 18(6), 377–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Girvin, H., DePanfilis, D., & Daining, C. (2007). Predicting program completion among families enrolled in a child neglect prevention intervention. Research on Social Work Practice, 17(6), 674–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Glisson, C., Dukes, D., & Green, P. (2006). The effects of the ARC organizational intervention on caseworker turnover, climate, and culture in children’s service systems. Child Abuse and Neglect, 30(8), 855–880.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Glisson, C., & Hemmelgarn, A. (1998). The effects of organizational climate and interorganizational coordination on the quality and outcomes of children’s service systems. Child Abuse and Neglect, 22(5), 401–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Glisson, C., & James, L. R. (2002). The cross-level effects of culture and climate in human service teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 767–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Glisson, C., & Schoenwald, S. K. (2005). The ARC organizational and community intervention strategy for implementing evidence-based children’s mental health treatments. Mental Health Services Research, 7(4), 243–259.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., Macfarlane, F., Bate, P., & Kyriakidou, O. (2004). Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: Systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Quarterly, 82(4), 581–629.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Grol, R. (2001). Successes and failures in the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice. Medical Care, 39(8 Suppl 2), II46–II54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Grol, R. P., Bosch, M. C., Hulscher, M. E., Eccles, M. P., & Wensing, M. (2007). Planning and studying improvement in patient care: The use of theoretical perspectives. The Milbank Quarterly, 85(1), 93–138.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gross, D., Fogg, L., Webster-Stratton, C., Garvey, C., Julion, W., & Grady, J. (2003). Parent training of toddlers in day care in low-income urban communities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 261–278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hecht, D. B., Silovsky, J. F., Chaffin, M., & Lutzker, J. R. (2008). SafeCare: An evidence-based approach to prevent child neglect. The APSAC Advisor, 20(1), 14–17.Google Scholar
  45. Hemsley-Brown, J., & Sharp, C. (2003). The use of research to improve professional practice: A systematic review of the literature. Oxford Review of Education, 29(4), 449–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hoagwood, K. (2003). The policy context for child and adolescent mental health services: Implications for systems reform and basic science development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1008, 140–148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Holland, P., & Gorey, K. M. (2004). Historical, developmental, and behavioral factors associated with foster care challenges. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21, 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hurlburt, M. S., Barth, R. P., Leslie, L. K., Landsverk, J., & McRae, J. (2007). Building on strengths: Current status and opportunities for improvement of parent training for families in child welfare. In R. Haskins, F. Wulczyn, & M. B. Webb (Eds.), Child protection: Using research to improve policy and practice (pp. 81–106). Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  49. Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research. (2007). Partnerships to integrate evidence-based mental health practices into social work education and research. Report from April 12, 2007 symposium. http://www.iaswresearch.org. Accessed 3/27/2009.
  50. Jenson, J. M. (2007). Evidence-based practice and the reform of social work education: A response to Gambrill and Howard and Allen-Meares. Research on Social Work Practice, 17(5), 569–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kazdin, A. E., & Wassell, G. (2000). Therapeutic changes in children, parents, and families resulting from Treatment of children with conduct problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 414–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kerker, B. D., & Dore, M. M. (2006). Mental health needs and treatment of foster youth: Barriers and opportunities. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(1), 138–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kessler, R. C., Pecora, P. J., Williams, J., Hiripi, E., O’Brien, K., English, D., et al. (2008). Effects of enhanced foster care on the long-term physical and mental health of foster care alumni. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 625–633.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Klein, K. J., & Sorra, J. S. (1996). The challenge of innovation implementation. Academy of Management Review, 21, 1055–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kortenkamp, K., & Ehrle, J. (2002). The well-being of children involved with the child welfare system: New Federalism: National Survey of America’s Families, (B-43). Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=310413.
  56. Landsverk, J., & Garland, A. (1999). Foster care and pathways to mental health services. In P. Curtis & G. Dale (Eds.), The foster care crisis: Translating research into practice and policy (pp. 193–210). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  57. Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (1988). Unraveling families and delinquency: A reanalysis of the Gluecks’ data. Criminology, 26(3), 355–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leslie, L. K., Hurlburt, M. S., Janksverk, J., Rolls, J. A., Wood, P. A., & Kelleher, K. J. (2003). Comprehensive assessments for children entering foster care: A national perspective. Pediatrics, 112, 134–142.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). Female juvenile offenders: Defining an early-onset pathway for delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13, 439–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Loeber, R., & Dishion, T. J. (1983). Early predictors of male delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94(1), 68–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lutzker, J. R. (1984). Project 12-ways: Treating child abuse and neglect from an ecobehavioral perspective. In R. F. Daniel & R. A. Polster (Eds.), Parent training: Foundations of research and practice (pp. 260–297). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  62. Moore, K. J., Osgood, W. D., Larzelere, R. E., & Chamberlain, P. (1994). Use of pooled time series in the study of naturally occurring clinical events and problem behavior in a foster care setting. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 718–728.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Morawska, A., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Self-administered behavioral family intervention for parents of toddlers: Part I. Efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 10–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. National Association of Public Child Welfare Administrators. (2005). Guide for child welfare administrators on evidence based practice. http://www.aphsa.org. Accessed 3/27/2009.
  65. Nixon, R. D., Sweeney, L., Erickson, D. B., & Touyz, S. W. (2004). Parent–child interaction therapy: One- and two-year follow-up of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(3), 263–271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Palinkas, L., & Aarons, G. A. (2010). A view from the top: Executive and management challenges in a statewide implementation of an evidence-based practice to reduce child neglect. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development (in press).Google Scholar
  67. Patterson, G. R. (2005). The next generation of PMTO models. The Behavior Therapist, 28, 25–32.Google Scholar
  68. Plant, K. M., & Sanders, M. R. (2007). Predictors of care-giver stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(2), 109–124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10(1), 1–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Raghavan, R., Inkelas, M., Franke, T., & Halfon, N. (2007). Administrative barriers to the adoption of high-quality mental health services for children in foster care: A national study. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 34(3), 191–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Reid, M., Webster-Stratton, C., Baydar, N., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2004). Halting the development of conduct problems in head start children: The effects of parent training. [References]. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 33(2), 279–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reid, M. J., Webster-Stratton, C., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Parent training in head start: A comparison of program response among African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic mothers. Prevention Science, 2(4), 209–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovation (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  74. Ruff, H. A., Blank, S., & Barnett, H. L. (1990). Early intervention in the context of foster care. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 11, 265–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sanders, M. R. (1999). Triple P-positive parenting program: Towards an empirically validated multilevel parenting and family support strategy for the prevention of behavior and emotional problems in children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2(2), 71–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sanders, M. R. (2008). Triple P-positive parenting program as a public health approach to strengthening parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 506–517.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Rinaldis, M., Firman, D., & Baig, N. (2007). Using household survey data to inform policy decisions regarding the delivery of evidence-based parenting interventions. Child: Care Health and Development, 33(6), 768–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Tully, L., & Bor, W. (2000). The Triple P-positive parenting program: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self directed behavioural family intervention for parents of children with early conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 624–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Turner, K. M. T., & Ralph, A. (2004). Using the Triple P system of intervention to prevent behavioural problems in children and adolescents. In P. Barrett & T. Ollendick (Eds.), Handbook of interventions that work with children and adolescents: Prevention and treatment (pp. 489–516). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sanders, M. R., & McFarland, M. L. (2000). The treatment of depressed mothers with disruptive children: A controlled evaluation of cognitive behavioral family intervention. Behavior Therapy, 31(1), 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sanders, M. R., Turner, K. M. T., & Markie-Dadds, C. (2002). The development and dissemination of the Triple P-positive parenting program: A multi-level, evidence-based system of parenting and family support. Prevention Science, 31, 173–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schoenwald, S. K., Chapman, J. E., Kelleher, K., Hoagwood, K. E., Landsverk, J., Stevens, J., et al. (2008a). A survey of the infrastructure for children’s mental health services: Implications for the implementation of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 35(1–2), 84–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Schoenwald, S. K., Kelleher, K., Weisz, J. R., & Research Network on Youth Mental Health. (2008b). Building bridges to evidence-based practice: The MacArthur foundation child system and treatment enhancement projects (Child STEPs). Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 35(1–2), 66–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Schuhmann, E. M., Foote, R. C., Eyberg, S. M., Boggs, S. R., & Algina, J. (1998). Efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy: Interim report of a randomized trial with short-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(1), 34–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Simpson, D. D. (2002). A conceptual framework for transferring research to practice. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 22(4), 171–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare (CEBC). (2009). http://www.cachildwelfareclearinghouse.org. Accessed 3/27/2009.
  87. Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. (2007). Behavioral outcomes of parent–child interaction therapy and Triple P—positive parenting program: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(3), 475–495.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Torrey, W. C., Finnerty, M., Evans, A., & Wyzik, P. (2003). Strategies for leading the implementation of evidence-based practices. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 26(4), 883–897, viii–ix.Google Scholar
  89. Torrey, W. C., Lynde, D. W., & Gorman, P. (2005). Promoting the implementation of practices that are supported by research: The national implementing evidence-based practices projects. Child and Adolescent Clinics of North America, 14, 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Turner, K. M. T., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Help when it’s needed first: A controlled evaluation of brief, preventive behavioral family intervention in a primary care setting. Behavior Therapy, 37(2), 131–142.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). Trends in foster care and adoption—FY 2002–FY 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/afcars/trends_02-07.pdf.
  92. Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, M. J. (2003). Treating conduct problems and strengthening social emotional competence in young children (ages 4–8 years): The Dina Dinosaur treatment program. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(3), 130–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2004). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 105–124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Weissman, M. M., Verdeli, H., Gameroff, M. J., Bledsoe, S. E., Betts, K., Mufson, L., et al. (2006). National survey of psychotherapy training in psychiatry, psychology, and social work. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(8), 925–934.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Yoo, J., Brooks, D., & Patti, R. (2007). Organizational constructs as predictors of effectiveness in child welfare interventions. Child Welfare, 86(1), 53–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah McCue Horwitz
    • 1
  • Patricia Chamberlain
    • 2
  • John Landsverk
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Charlotte Mullican
    • 6
  1. 1.The Department of Pediatrics and the Centers for Primary Care and Outcomes Research and Health PolicyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.The Center for Research to Practice & Oregon Social Learning CenterEugeneUSA
  3. 3.Child and Adolescent Services Research CenterRady Children’s HospitalSan DiegoUSA
  4. 4.School of Social WorkUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.George Warren Brown School of Social WorkWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  6. 6.Center for Primary Care, Prevention and Clinical Partnerships, Agency for Healthcare Research and QualityDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRockvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations