Costs of Clubhouses: An International Perspective

  • Colleen E. McKay
  • Brian T. Yates
  • Matthew Johnsen
Article

Abstract

Costs of providing psychosocial rehabilitation services are analyzed using data from clubhouse programs in 12 countries. We explored effects of several program operating characteristics on total program cost per year, cost per member per year, and cost per visit. We also examined the relationship between program costs and the range of services offered. Clubhouse costs were found to be a function of the country in which the program was located, program age, and certification status. The number of specific services offered was not related to cost. Findings provide a more complete understanding of the operations and expenses of clubhouses.

Keywords

annual cost clubhouse cost per member cost per visit psychosocial rehabilitation 

References

  1. Anderson S.B. (1998). We are not alone: Fountain House & the development of clubhouse culture. New York, NY, Fountain HouseGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker B.C., Woods S.W. (2001). Cost of treatment failure for major depression: Direct costs of continued treatment. Administration and Policy in Mental Health 28: 263–277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beard J.H., Propst R.N., Malamud T.J. (1982). Fountain House model of psychiatric rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 5: 47–53Google Scholar
  4. Chandler D., Meisel J., Hu T.W. (1999). A capitated model for a cross-section of severely mentally ill clients: Employment outcomes. Year Book of Psychiatry & Applied Mental Health 5: 215–216Google Scholar
  5. Chandler D., Spicer G. (2002). Capitated Assertive Community Treatment program savings: System implications. Administration and Policy in Mental Health 30: 3–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark R.E., Xie H., Becker D.R., Drake R.E. (1998). Benefits and costs of supported employment from three perspectives. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 25: 22–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cowell A., Pollio D.E., North C.S., Stewart A.M., McCabe M.M., Anderson D.W. (2003). Deriving service costs for a clubhouse psychosocial rehabilitation program. Administration and Policy in Mental Health 30: 323–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Flannery M., Glickman M. (1996). Fountain House: Portraits of lives reclaimed from mental illness. (First Ed.) Center City, MN: Hazelden PressGoogle Scholar
  9. Glickman M. (1992). The voluntary nature of the clubhouse. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 16: 39–40Google Scholar
  10. Hayes, W. L. (1963). Statistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and WinstonGoogle Scholar
  11. International Center for Clubhouse Development (ICCD). (2002). ICCD International Clubhouse Directory. Retrieved March 19, 2002 from http://www.iccd.org/clubhouseDirectory.aspx
  12. International Center for Clubhouse Development (ICCD). (2003). International standards for clubhouse programs. Retrieved December 1, 2003 from http://www.iccd.org/article.asp?articleID=8
  13. Jackson R.L. (2001). The Clubhouse Model: Empowering applications of theory to generalist practice. Belmont, CA: WadsworthGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnsen M., McKay C., Corcoran J., Lidz C. (2002). Characteristics of clubhouses across the world: Findings from the International Survey of Clubhouses 2000. Center for Mental Health Services, Medical School, Massachusetts University, Worcester, MA. Manuscript submitted for publicationGoogle Scholar
  15. Macias C., Barreira P., Alden M., Boyd J. (2001). The ICCD benchmarks for clubhouses: A practical approach to quality improvement in psychiatric rehabilitation. Psychiatric Services 52: 207–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Macias C., DeCarlo L.T., Wang Q., Frey J., Barreira P. (2001). Work interest as a predictor of competitive employment: Policy implications for psychiatric rehabilitation. Administration and Policy in Mental Health 28: 279–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Macias C., Propst R.N., Rodican C., Boyd J. (2001). Strategic planning for ICCD clubhouse implementation: Development of the Clubhouse Research and Evaluation Screening Survey (CRESS). Mental Health Services Research 3: 155–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Macias C., Jackson R., Schroeder C., Wang Q. (1999). What is a clubhouse? Report on the ICCD 1996 survey of USA clubhouses. Community Mental Health Journal 35: 181–190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Malamud T.J., McCrory D. (1988). Transitional employment and psychosocial rehabilitation. In: Cardiello J.A., Bell M.D. (eds) Vocational rehabilitation of persons with prolonged psychiatric disorders. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, pp. 150–162Google Scholar
  20. Waters B. (1992). The work unit: The heart of the clubhouse. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 16: 41–48Google Scholar
  21. Yates B.T. (1980). Improving effectiveness and reducing costs in mental health. Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  22. Yates B.T. (1994). Toward the incorporation of costs, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-benefit analysis into clinical research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62: 729–736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Yates B.T. (1996). Analyzing costs, procedures, processes, and outcomes in human services: An introduction. Five-chapter book. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colleen E. McKay
    • 1
    • 2
  • Brian T. Yates
    • 3
  • Matthew Johnsen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.Program for Clubhouse ResearchWorcesterUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyAmerican UniversityWashington DCUSA
  4. 4.Program for Clubhouse Research, Center for Mental Health Services ResearchUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations