Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 271–284 | Cite as

Update on Sexual Dimorphism in Brain Structure–Function Interrelationships: A Literature Review

  • Maria PallayovaEmail author
  • Andrea Brandeburova
  • Diana Tokarova


A remarkable feature of the human brain is its sexual dimorphism. While it is well documented that the sexual dimorphism in brain structure and function exists, its clinical implications in healthy individuals as well as in those who suffer from various neuropsychiatric disorders remain to be further explored. The present paper aims to provide an overview of the remarkable features and the fundamental characteristics of the sexual dimorphism in brain performance along with clinical implications based on the review of the relevant meta-analyses published up-to-date. The primary aim is to highlight and discuss the synthesized results to advance human knowledge in the area of applied psychophysiology and support direct future interdisciplinary research efforts towards improvements in health and quality of life with regard to sexual dimorphism in brain structure–function interrelationships. The review also seeks to advance clinical management approaches to sexually dimorphic neurocognitive conditions. Better understanding of the areas implicated in sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders can help to improve sex-specific referrals, diagnosis and proactive care management of the patients and achieving treat-to-target goals.


Meta-analyses Sex differences Brain asymmetry Emotions Cognition Neuropsychiatric disorders 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of MedicinePavol Jozef Safarik UniversityKosiceSlovak Republic

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