Advertisement

Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 139–149 | Cite as

A Methodology of Analysis for Monitoring Treatment Progression with 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) in a Single-Subject Design

  • Genomary KrigbaumEmail author
  • Nancy L. Wigton
Article

Abstract

19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) is a modality using 19-electrodes with real-time normative database z-scores, suggesting effective clinical outcomes in fewer sessions than traditional neurofeedback. Thus, monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome is necessary. The area of focus in this study was a methodology of quantitative analysis for monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome with 19ZNF. This methodology is noted as the Sites-of-Interest, which included repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) and t-tests for z-scores; it was conducted on 10 cases in a single subject design. To avoid selection bias, the 10 sample cases were randomly selected from a pool of 17 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Available client outcome measures (including self-report) are briefly discussed. The results showed 90 % of the pre-post comparisons moved in the targeted direction (z = 0) and of those, 96 % (80 % Bonferroni corrected) of the t-tests and 96 % (91 % Bonferroni corrected) of the rANOVAs were statistically significant; thus indicating a progression towards the mean in 15 or fewer 19ZNF sessions. All cases showed and reported improvement in all outcome measures (including quantitative electroencephalography assessment) at case termination.

Keywords

Neurofeedback EEG Biofeedback QEEG 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback Sites-of-Interest 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U., Breteler, M., & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience Journal, 40, 180–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arns, M., Drinkenburg, W., & Kenemans, J. L. (2012). The effects of QEEG-informed neurofeedback in ADHD: An open-label pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 37, 171–180.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arns, M., Heinrich, H., & Strehl, U. (2014). Evaluation of neurofeedback in ADHD: The long and winding road. Biological Psychology, 9, 108–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Breteler, M. H. M., Arns, M., Sylvia Peters, S., Giepmans, I., & Verhoeven, L. (2010). Improvements in spelling after QEEG-based neurofeedback in dyslexia: A randomized controlled treatment study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 35, 5–11.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cannon, R. L., Baldwin, D. R., Shaw, T. L., Diloreto, D. J., Phillips, S. M., Scruggs, A. M., & Riehl, T. C. (2012). Reliability of quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures and LORETA current source density at 30 days. Neuroscience Letters, 518, 27–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Collura, T. F. (2014). Technical foundations of neurofeedback. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Collura, T. F., Guan, J. G., Tarrant, J., Bailey, J., & Starr, F. (2010). EEG biofeedback case studies using live z-score training and a normative database. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14, 22–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collura, T. F., Thatcher, R. W., Smith, M. L., Lambos, W. A., & Stark, C. R. (2009). EEG biofeedback training using live z-scores and a normative database. In T. H. Budzynski, H. K. Budzynski, J. R. Evans, & A. A. Abarbanel (Eds.), Introduction to quantitative EEG and neurofeedback: Advanced theory and applications (2nd ed., pp. 29–59). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  10. Gasser, T., Bacher, P., & Steinberg, H. (1985). Test-retest reliability of spectral parameters of the EEG. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 60, 312–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hallman, D. W. (2012). 19-Channel neurofeedback in an adolescent with FASD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16, 150–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hammer, B., Colbert, A., Brown, K., & Ilioi, E. (2011). Neurofeedback for insomnia: A pilot study of z-score SMR and individualized protocols. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 36, 251–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Koberda, J. L. (2014). Z-Score LORETA neurofeedback as a potential therapy in cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Journal of Psychology and Clinical Psychiatry, 1(6), 1–11. doi: 10.15406/jpcpy.2014.01.00037. 00037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Koberda, J. L., Koberda, P., Bienkiewicz, A. A., Moses, A., & Koberda, L. (2013). Pain management using 19-electrode z-score LORETA neurofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 17(3), 179–190. doi: 10.1080/10874208.2013.813204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koberda, J. L., Moses, A., Koberda, P., & Koberda, L. (2012a). Comparison of the effectiveness of z-score surface/LORETA 19-electrodes neurofeedback to standard 1-electrode neurofeedback. Oral presentation at the 20th annual conference of the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  16. Koberda, J. L., Moses, A., Koberda, L., & Koberda, P. (2012b). Cognitive enhancement using 19-electrode z-score neurofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16(3), 224–230. doi: 10.1080/10874208.2012.705770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koberda, J. L., & Stodolska-Koberda, U. (2014). Z-score LORETA neurofeedback as a potential rehabilitation modality in patients with CVA. Journal of Neurology and Stroke, 1(5), 00029. 1–5.Google Scholar
  18. Krigbaum, G. (2013). Abnormal psychology in a multicultural context. In: Plante, T., (Ed.), Abnormal psychology across the ages, Vol. I: History and conceptualization, Vol. II: Disorders and treatments, Vol. III: Future directions and current trends, (Vol. III, Chap. 14). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  19. Rutter, P. (2011). Potential clinical applications for 19 channel live z-score training using Percent ZOK and ZPlus protocols. Oral presentation at the 19th annual conference of the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, Carefree, AZ.Google Scholar
  20. Salinsky, M. C., Oken, B. S., & Morehead, L. (1991). Test-retest reliability in EEG frequency analysis. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 79, 382–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A. (2009). QEEG guided neurofeedback therapy in personality disorders: 13 case studies. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience Journal, 40, 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A. (2011). Obsessive compulsive disorder and the efficacy of qEEG-Guided neurofeedback treatment: A case series. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience Journal, 42, 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Surmeli, T., Ertem, A., Eralp, E., & Kos, I. H. (2012). Schizophrenia and the efficacy of qEEG-Guided neurofeedback treatment: A clinical case series. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 133–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thatcher, R. W. (2012). Handbook of quantitative electroencephalography and EEG biofeedback. St. Petersburg, FL: Anipublishing.Google Scholar
  25. Thatcher, R. W. (2013). Latest developments in live z-score training: Symptom check list, phase reset, and LORETA z-score biofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 17, 69–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Thatcher, R. W., & Lubar, J. E. (2009). History of the scientific standards of qEEG normative databases. In T. H. Budzynski, H. K. Budzynski, J. R. Evans, & A. A. Abarbanel (Eds.), Introduction to quantitative EEG and neurofeedback: Advanced theory and applications (2nd ed., pp. 29–59). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Valenzuela, S., & Krigbaum, G. (2013). Psychosurgery through the ages: From lobotomy to deep brain stimulation. In: Plante, T., (Ed.), Abnormal psychology across the ages, Vol. I: History and conceptualization, Vol. II: Disorders and treatments, Vol. III: Future directions and current trends, (Vol. II, Chap. 14). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  28. van Boxtel, G. J. M., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2014). Neurofeedback: Introduction to the special issue. Biological Psychology, 95, 1–3. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.11.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vialatte, F., & Cichocki, A. (2008). Split-test Bonferroni correction for QEEG statistical maps. Biological Cybernetics, 98(4), 295–303. doi: 10.1007/s00422-008-0210-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Walker, J. (2009). Anxiety associated with post-traumatic stress disorder—The role of quantitative electroencephalograph in diagnosis and in guiding neurofeedback training to remediate the anxiety. Biofeedback, 37, 67–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Walker, J. (2010). Recent advances in quantitative EEG as an aid to diagnosis and as a guide to neurofeedback training for cortical hypofunctions, hyperfunctions, disconnections, and hyperconnections: Improving efficacy in complicated neurological and psychological disorders. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 35, 25–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Walker, J. (2012). QEEG-guided neurofeedback for remediation of dysgraphia. Biofeedback, 40, 113–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wigton, N. L. (2008). 4-channel z-score neurofeedback—A single case study. Poster presentation at the 16th annual conference of the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  34. Wigton, N. L. (2009). First impressions of Neuroguide real-time z-score training. In J. Demos (Ed.), Getting started with dynamic z-score training (pp. 81–89). Westminster, VT: Neurofeedback of S.VT.Google Scholar
  35. Wigton, N. L. (2010). Laplacian z-score neurofeedback: A unique option in the realm of multi-channel z-score neurofeedback. Plenary session oral presentation at 18th annual conference of the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  36. Wigton, N. L. (2013). Clinical perspectives of 19-channel z-score neurofeedback: Benefits and limitations. Journal of Neurotherapy, 17(4), 259–264. doi: 10.1080/10874208.2013.847142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marian University College of Osteopathic MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Grand Canyon UniversityPhoenixUSA
  3. 3.Applied Neurothrapy Center, LLCScottsdaleUSA

Personalised recommendations