EEG Spectral Analysis on Muslim Prayers
- First Online:
This study investigated the proposition of relaxation offered by performing the Muslim prayers by measuring the alpha brain activity in the frontal (F3–F4), central (C3–C4), parietal (P3–P4), and occipital (O1–O2) electrode placements using the International 10–20 System. Nine Muslim subjects were asked to perform the four required cycles of movements of Dhuha prayer, and the EEG were subsequently recorded with open eyes under three conditions, namely, resting, performing four cycles of prayer while reciting the specific verses and supplications, and performing four cycles of acted salat condition (prayer movements without any recitations). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests revealed that there were no significant difference in the mean alpha relative power (RPα) between the alpha amplitude in the Dhuha prayer and the acted conditions in all eight electrode positions. However, the mean RPα showed higher alpha amplitude during the prostration position of the Dhuha prayer and acted condition at the parietal and occipital regions in comparison to the resting condition. Findings were similar to other studies documenting increased alpha amplitude in parietal and occipital regions during meditation and mental concentration. The incidence of increased alpha amplitude suggested parasympathetic activation, thus indicating a state of relaxation. Subsequent studies are needed to delineate the role of mental concentration, and eye focus, on alpha wave amplitude while performing worshipping acts.
KeywordsSalat Muslims prayer EEG Alpha wave Prostration
- Amodio, P., Orsato, R., Marchetti, P., Schiff, S., Poci, C., Angeli, P., et al. (2009). Electroencephalographic analysis for the assessment of hepatic encephalopathy: comparison of non-parametric and parametric spectral estimation techniques. Clinical Neurophysiology, 36(2), 107–115.Google Scholar
- Applegate, E. J. (1995). The anatomy and physiology learning system (1st ed.). USA: W.B. Sounders Company.Google Scholar
- Craven, J. L. (1989). Meditation and psychotherapy. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 648–653.Google Scholar
- Fumoto, M., Sato-Suzuki, I., Seki, Y., Mohri, Y., & Arita, H. (2004). Appearance of high-frequency alpha band with disappearance of low-frequency alpha band in EEG is produced during voluntary abdominal breathing in an eyes-closed condition. Neuroscience Research, 50, 307–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ibrahim, F., Wan Abas, W. A. B., & Ng, S. C. (2008). Salat: Benefit from science perspective. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Malaya.Google Scholar
- Schlogl, A., Slater, M., & Pfurtscheller, G. (2002). Presence research and EEG. Retrieved July 1, 2007 from http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/research/equator/papers/Documents2002/Mel_presence_2002.pdf.
- Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGrawHill.Google Scholar
- Sim, M. K., & Grewal, J. K. (1989). Chinese diaphragmatic breathing as an Adjunct to relaxation: Effects on EEG. Medical Psychotherapy: An International Journal, 2, 157–162.Google Scholar