Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 32, Issue 3–4, pp 169–183 | Cite as

Changes in EEG Current Sources Induced by Neurofeedback in Learning Disabled Children. An Exploratory Study

  • Thalía Fernández
  • Thalía Harmony
  • Antonio Fernández-Bouzas
  • Lourdes Díaz-Comas
  • Roberto A. Prado-Alcalá
  • Pedro Valdés-Sosa
  • Gloria Otero
  • Jorge Bosch
  • Lídice Galán
  • Efraín Santiago-Rodríguez
  • Eduardo Aubert
  • Fabiola García-Martínez


The objective of this work was to explore Neurofeedback (NFB) effects on EEG current sources in Learning Disabled (LD) children, and to corroborate its beneficial consequences on behavioral and cognitive performance. NFB was given in twenty 30-min sessions to 11 LD children to reduce their abnormally high theta/alpha ratios (Experimental Group). Another five LD children with the same characteristics received a placebo treatment (Control Group). In the Control Group no changes in behavior or EEG current source were observed. In the Experimental Group, immediately after treatment children showed behavioral and cognitive improvements, but current source analysis showed few modifications; however, 2 months after treatment many changes occurred: a decrease in current of frequencies within the theta band, mainly in left frontal and cingulate regions, and enhancement in current of frequencies within the alpha band, principally in the right temporal lobe and right frontal regions, and of frequencies within the beta band, mainly in left temporal, right frontal and cingulate cortex regions. In conclusion, NFB is a possibly efficacious treatment for LD children with an abnormally high theta/alpha ratio in any lead. The changes observed in EEG current sources may reflect the neurophysiological bases of the improvement that children experienced in their behavioral and cognitive activities.


Neurofeedback Learning Disabled children EEG current sources EEG normative database Control and Experimental Groups 



The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of Héctor Belmont, Rosa María Hernández, Salvador Ocampo, Rafael Silva, Pilar Galarza, María de Lourdes Lara, and Oscar U. Cárdenas. The authors thank Dorothy Pless and Marcela Sánchez-Alvarez for editing the manuscript, and Gloria Avecilla, Wendy Herrera and Georgina Aboytes for their collaboration. This project was supported in part by grants from DGAPA (IN226001, IN204103) and CONCYTEQ (2001, 2004).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thalía Fernández
    • 1
  • Thalía Harmony
    • 1
  • Antonio Fernández-Bouzas
    • 1
  • Lourdes Díaz-Comas
    • 2
  • Roberto A. Prado-Alcalá
    • 1
  • Pedro Valdés-Sosa
    • 2
  • Gloria Otero
    • 3
  • Jorge Bosch
    • 2
  • Lídice Galán
    • 2
  • Efraín Santiago-Rodríguez
    • 1
  • Eduardo Aubert
    • 2
  • Fabiola García-Martínez
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Neurobiología Conductual y Cognitiva, Instituto de Neurobiología, Campus UNAM-UAQ Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoJuriquillaMexico
  2. 2.Centro de Neurociencias de CubaHavanaCuba
  3. 3.Facultad de Medicina Laboratorio de PsicofisiologíaUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoTolucaMexico

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