Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 333–345 | Cite as

Efficacy of Biofeedback-Based Treatments for Temporomandibular Disorders

  • Andrew Crider
  • Alan G. Glaros
  • Richard N. Gevirtz


Bibliographic searches identified 14 controlled and uncontrolled outcome evaluations of biofeedback-based treatments for temporomandibular disorders published since 1978. This literature includes two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of each of three types of biofeedback treatment: (1) surface electromyographic (SEMG) training of the masticatory muscles, (2) SEMG training combined with adjunctive cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques, and (3) biofeedback-assisted relaxation training (BART). A detailed review of these six RCTs, supplemented with information from non-RCT findings, was conducted to determine the extent to which each type of intervention met treatment efficacy criteria promulgated by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB). We conclude that SEMG training with adjunctive CBT is an efficacious treatment for temporomandibular disorders and that both SEMG training as the sole intervention and BART are probably efficacious treatments. We discuss guidelines for designing and reporting research in this area and suggest possible directions for future studies.


temporomandibular disorders biofeedback electromyography treatment efficacy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Crider
    • 1
  • Alan G. Glaros
    • 2
  • Richard N. Gevirtz
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliams CollegeWilliamstown
  2. 2.Kansas City University of Medicine and BiosciencesKansas City
  3. 3.California School of Professional PsychologyAlliant International UniversitySan Diego

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