Bacterial diversity in deep-sea sediments under influence of asphalt seep at the São Paulo Plateau
Here we investigated the diversity of bacterial communities from deep-sea surface sediments under influence of asphalt seeps at the Sao Paulo Plateau using next-generation sequencing method. Sampling was performed at North São Paulo Plateau using the human occupied vehicle Shinkai 6500 and her support vessel Yokosuka. The microbial diversity was studied at two surficial sediment layers (0–1 and 1–4 cm) of five samples collected in cores in water depths ranging from 2456 to 2728 m. Bacterial communities were studied through sequencing of 16S rRNA gene on the Ion Torrent platform and clustered in operational taxonomic units. We observed high diversity of bacterial sediment communities as previously described by other studies. When we considered community composition, the most abundant classes were Alphaproteobacteria (27.7%), Acidimicrobiia (20%), Gammaproteobacteria (11.3%) and Deltaproteobacteria (6.6%). Most abundant OTUs at family level were from two uncultured bacteria from Actinomarinales (5.95%) and Kiloniellaceae (3.17%). The unexpected high abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Acidimicrobiia in our deep-sea microbial communities may be related to the presence of asphalt seep at North São Paulo Plateau, since these bacterial classes contain bacteria that possess the capability of metabolizing hydrocarbon compounds.
KeywordsAsphalt seep Deep-sea sediment Diversity Microorganisms São Paulo Plateau
We would like to thank Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), the Oceanographic Institute of the São Paulo University (IOUSP), the Brazilian Geological Survey (CPRM), Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. (Petrobras) and the Embassy of Japan in Brazil for assistance in this study. We would also like to thank Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for financial support (Project No. 2013/09159-2) and CNPq for scholarship provided to A.O.S.L (Process 311010/2015-6); the operating team of the HOV Shinkai 6500 and the crew of the R/V Yokosuka for assistance with the survey; and all team of Laboratório de Ecologia Microbiana (LECOM) for productive discussions about our methods and results, and Kleber do Espirito-Santo Filho for help with maps.
The author LQ, RD, CN, PS, AL, YN, KF, HK and VP designed study, LQ, RD,DG,AS and VP performed research, LQ, AB, RD and DG analysed data; LQ, AB, RD and DG contributed new methods or models; and LQ, AB, RD, CN and VP wrote the paper.
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