Calcite formation induced by Ensifer adhaerens, Microbacterium testaceum, Paeniglutamicibacter kerguelensis, Pseudomonas protegens and Rheinheimera texasensis
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A wide range of bacterial species are able to induce calcium carbonate precipitation. Using our own laboratory-preserved strains, we have newly discovered that Ensifer sp. MY11e, Microbacterium sp. TMd9a1, Paeniglutamicibacter sp. MSa1a, Pseudomonas sp. GTc3, and Rheinheimera sp. ATWe6 can induce the formation of calcite crystals on an agar medium. Type strains of their closely related species (Ensifer adhaerens, Microbacterium testaceum, Paeniglutamicibacter kerguelensis, Pseudomonas protegens, and Rheinheimera texasensis) could also induce calcite formation. Although the initial pH value of the agar medium was 6.1, the pH of the agar media containing calcite, induced by cultivation of the 10 bacterial strains, increased to 8.0–8.4. The ammonification (oxidative deamination) of amino acids may been responsible for this increase in pH. The crystals formed both on and around the bacterial colonies. Furthermore, when these strains (excepting two Microbacterium strains) were cultivated on a cellulose acetate membrane filter (0.20 μm pore size) resting on the surface of the agar medium (i.e., in the membrane filter culture method), the crystals formed on the agar medium separate from the bacterial cells. These results indicate that the bacterial cells did not necessarily become nucleation sites for these crystals. We also investigated whether the studied strains could be applied to the biocementation of sand, and found that only two Ensifer strains were able to form large sand lumps.
KeywordsBiomineralization Calcium carbonate precipitation Calcite Biocementation
KH conceived of the study, carried out the experiments and wrote the manuscript. KS contributed to the experiments, discussion and preparation of the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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