Escovopsis kreiselii specialization to its native hosts in the fungiculture of the lower attine ant Mycetophylax morschi
- 233 Downloads
Parasite-host associations are widespread in nature and the fungus-growing ants are considered model organisms to study such interactions. These insects cultivate basidiomycetous fungi for food, which are threatened by mycotrophic fungi in the genus Escovopsis. Although recently described from colonies of the lower attine ant Mycetophylax morschi, the biology and pathogenicity of Escovopsis kreiselii are unknown. Herein, we evaluated the interaction of E. kreiselii with fungi cultivated by M. morschi (native hosts) and with a fungus cultivated by another attine ant species (non-native host). In addition, we examined the physical interactions between hypha of E. kreiselii and hypha from its native hosts using scanning electron microscopy. Escovopsis kreiselii inhibited the growth of fungal cultivars by 24% or more (with exception of one isolate), when compared to the fungal cultivars growing alone. Escovopsis kreiselii is attracted towards its native hosts through chemotaxis and inhibition occurs when there is physical contact with the hyphae of the fungal cultivar. As reported for Escovopsis parasites associated with leafcutter ants (higher attines), E. kreiselii growth increased in the presence of its native hosts, even before contact between both fungi occurred. In interactions with the fungal cultivar that is not naturally infected by E. kreiselii (non-native host), it caused inhibition but not at the same magnitude as in native hosts. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that E. kreiselii is an antagonist of the fungus cultivated by M. morschi and can chemically recognize such fungus.
KeywordsAntagonism Chemotaxis Fungal interactions Host-parasite
We are grateful to “FAPESP—Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo’’ for financial support given to AR (Grant # 2014/24298-1) and a scholarship to BCC (# 2015/15299-7). We also thank Fernando Carlos Pagnocca for providing isolate FF2006 of the mutualistic fungus and Irina Jiménez Gómez for technical assistance. We would like to thank Lorena Tigre Lacerda, Rodolfo Bizarria Jr, and two anonymous reviewers for providing comments on this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Abràmoff MD, Magalhães PJ, Ram SJ (2004) Image processing with ImageJ. Biophoton Int 11:36–42Google Scholar
- Brunner E, Domhof S, Langer F (2002) Nonparametric analysis of longitudinal data in factorial experiments. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Meirelles LA, McFrederick QS, Rodrigues A, Mantovani JD, de Melo Rodovalho C, Ferreira H, Bacci M, Mueller UG (2016) Bacterial microbiomes from vertically transmitted fungal inocula of the leaf-cutting ant Atta texana. Environ Microbiol Rep 8:630–640. https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12415 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mueller UG, Kardish MR, Ishak HD, Wright AM, Solomon SE, Bruschi SM, Carlson AL, Bacci M Jr. (2018) Phylogenetic patterns of ant–fungus associations indicate that farming strategies, not only a superior fungal cultivar, explain the ecological success of leafcutter ants. Mol Ecol 27:2414–2434. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.14588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Price PW (1980) Evolutionary biology of parasites. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2018) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 25 July 2018
- Weber NA (1972) Gardening ants: the Attines. American Philosophical Society, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar