Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 111, Issue 12, pp 2349–2360 | Cite as

Regulator ThnR and the ThnDE ABC transporter proteins confer autoimmunity to thurincin H in Bacillus thuringiensis

  • Luz E. Casados-Vázquez
  • Dennis K. Bideshi
  • José E. Barboza-CoronaEmail author


The structural gene that encodes thurincin H, a bacteriocin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, is harboured in a genetic cluster (thnP, E, D, R, A1, A2, A3, B, T, I) that controls its synthesis, modification, secretion and autoimmunity. The specific genes in the cassette that confer immunity in B. thuringiensis to thurincin H are unknown. To identify these immunity determinants, we generated constructs that were used to transform a natural thurincin H-sensitive B. thuringiensis strain (i.e. Btk 404), and resistance or susceptibility to the bacteriocin in resultant recombinants was evaluated. When Btk 404/pHT3101-ThnARDEP and Btk 404/pHT3101-ThnABTI were exposed to thurincin H, immunity was demonstrated by the former only, indicating that ThnI does not play a role in resistance to the bacteriocin as previously proposed. Furthermore, we generated different sub-cassettes under the control of divergent promoters pThnR and pThur of the thurincin H locus, and pChi, and using the green fluorescent protein gene as reporter, which demonstrated that all promoters were recognised by ThnR, except pChi. We show for the first time that the small operon composed of thnR, thnD and thnE is required for immunity of B. thuringiensis to thurincin H, and thnI is not necessary for this response.


Bacillus thuringiensis Immunity Thurincin H Antimicrobial activity 



Luz E. Casados-Vázquez is a Young Associate Research supported by “Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), México (Grant 269). This study was partially supported by Grant SEP-CONACyT (258220) to J.E. Barboza-Corona. We appreciate the technical assistance of Dr. Rubén Salcedo-Hernández from the Universidad de Guanajuato, México.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10482_2018_1124_MOESM1_ESM.docx (458 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 459 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Life Science Division, Graduate Program in BiosciencesUniversity of Guanajuato Campus Irapuato-SalamancaIrapuatoMexico
  2. 2.Life Science Division Food DepartmentUniversity of Guanajuato Campus Irapuato-SalamancaIrapuatoMexico
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesCalifornia Baptist UniversityRiversideUSA
  4. 4.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

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