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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 109, Issue 7, pp 987–1018 | Cite as

The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa

  • Riikka Linnakoski
  • Robert Jankowiak
  • Caterina Villari
  • Thomas Kirisits
  • Halvor Solheim
  • Z. Wilhelm de Beer
  • Michael J. Wingfield
Original Paper

Abstract

Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus.

Keywords

Bark beetle-associated fungi Ophiostomatoid fungi Ophiostoma brunneolum Ophiostoma macroclavatum Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Stefan Ekman and Anders Nording at the Museum of Evolution, University of Uppsala, for providing facilities and their help to study the UPS herbarium specimens. The Nikon microscope and SEM images were taken at the School of Forest Sciences and at the Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, respectively. We acknowledge Ari Pappinen, Pertti Pääkkönen and Tommi Itkonen for providing facilities and their help to conduct the above mentioned microscopy. An isolate previously identified as O. brunneo-ciliatum was obtained as a kind concession of Francois Lieutier and Annie Yart, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Orleans, France. Gernot Hoch at the Federal Research and Training Centre for Forest, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Vienna, kindly provided pine material infested by I. acuminatus in Southern Austria, from which O. clavatum was isolated. Specifically acknowledged is also Johanna Ahtiainen, who collected many isolates investigated in this study. We are most grateful for our numerous colleagues, laboratory technicians and assistants for their invaluable help with isolating and maintaining the fungal cultures used in this study. We also thank the three anonymous reviewers whose comments helped improving this article. The study was supported financially by the University of Helsinki and the Emil Aaltonen Foundation, Finland; the University of Pretoria, the members of the Tree Protection Co-operative Programme (TPCP) and the THRIP initiative of the Department of Trade and Industry, South Africa; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland; Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (PRIN 200774ENMR ‘Climatic change and Italian pine pests: a model study’), Italy; the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013 (KBBE 2009-3) under grant agreement 245268 ISEFOR; and the Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre (pnr. 70184233).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)University of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Forest Pathology, Mycology and Tree Physiology, Institute of Forest Ecosystem ProtectionUniversity of Agriculture in KrakówKrakówPoland
  4. 4.Department of Plant PathologyOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  5. 5.Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e AmbienteUniversità di Padova, AgripolisLegnaroItaly
  6. 6.Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection (IFFF)University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU)ViennaAustria
  7. 7.Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy ResearchÅsNorway

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