Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 107, Issue 1, pp 173–185 | Cite as

Two yeast species Cystobasidium psychroaquaticum f.a. sp. nov. and Cystobasidium rietchieii f.a. sp. nov. isolated from natural environments, and the transfer of Rhodotorula minuta clade members to the genus Cystobasidium

  • A. M. YurkovEmail author
  • A. V. Kachalkin
  • H. M. Daniel
  • M. Groenewald
  • D. Libkind
  • V. de Garcia
  • P. Zalar
  • D. E. Gouliamova
  • T. Boekhout
  • D. Begerow
Original Paper


Many species of dimorphic basidiomycetes are known only in their asexual phase and typically those pigmented in different hues of red have been classified in the large polyphyletic genus Rhodotorula. These yeasts are ubiquitous and include a few species of some clinical relevance. The phylogenetic distribution of Rhodotorula spans three classes: Microbotryomycetes, Cystobasidiomycetes and Exobasidiomycetes. Here, the presented multi-gene analyses resolved phylogenetic relationships between the second largest group of Rhodotorula and the mycoparasite Cystobasidium fimetarium (Cystobasidiales, Cystobasidiomycetes, Pucciniomycotina). Based on the results, we propose the transfer of nine species belonging to the Rhodotorula minuta clade into the genus Cystobasidium. As a result, the clinically relevant species R. minuta will be renamed Cystobasidium minutum. This proposal follows ongoing reassessments of the anamorphic genus Rhodotorula reducing the polyphyly of this genus. The delimitation of the R. minuta clade from Rhodotorula species comprised in Sporidiobolales including the type species Rhodotorula glutinis is an important step to overcome obsolete generic placements of asexual basidiomycetous yeasts. Our proposal will also help to distinguish most common red yeasts from clinical samples such as members of Sporidiobolales and Cystobasidiales. The diagnosis of the genus Cystobasidium is amended by including additional characteristics known for the related group of species. The taxonomic change enables us to classify two novel species with the phylogenetically related members of the R. minuta clade in Cystobasidium. The recently from natural environments isolated species are described here as Cystobasidium psychroaquaticum f.a. sp. nov. (K-833T = KBP 3881T = VKPM Y-3653T = CBS 11769T = MUCL 52875T = DSM 27713T) and Cystobasidium rietchiei f.a. sp. nov. (K-780T = KBP 4220T = VKPM Y-3658T = CBS 12324T = MUCL 53589T = DSM 27155T). The new species were registered in MycoBank under MB 809336 and MB 809337, respectively.


Yeasts Fungi Basidiomycetes Pucciniomycotina New species Rhodotorula Cystobasidium 



EXF strains were maintained in Ex Culture Collection of the Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Infrastructural Centre Mycosmo, MRIC UL. Authors are grateful to Mario Muñoz for his assistance in isolating strain CRUB 1888. This study was supported by UNComahue (DL: project B171), CONICET (DL: Project PIP 424), the Belgian Federal Science Policy (HMD: BCCM C4/10/017), and by the grant of the President of Russian Federation (AK: MK-788.2014.4). A research visit of Dr. Dilnora Gouliamova to CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre was supported by The European Consortium of Microbial Resource Centres (EMbaRC) training program.

Supplementary material

10482_2014_315_MOESM1_ESM.doc (40 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 40 kb)
10482_2014_315_MOESM2_ESM.docx (139 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 139 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Yurkov
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. V. Kachalkin
    • 2
  • H. M. Daniel
    • 3
  • M. Groenewald
    • 4
  • D. Libkind
    • 5
  • V. de Garcia
    • 5
  • P. Zalar
    • 6
  • D. E. Gouliamova
    • 7
  • T. Boekhout
    • 4
    • 8
    • 9
  • D. Begerow
    • 10
  1. 1.Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell CulturesBrunswickGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Soil ScienceLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.BCCM/MUCL, Earth and Life Institute, Applied Microbiology, MycologyUniversité catholique de LouvainLouvain-La-NeuveBelgium
  4. 4.CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity CentreUtrechtThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Applied Microbiolgy and Biotechnology Lab., INIBIOMACONICET-UNComahueBarilocheArgentina
  6. 6.Department of Biology, Biotechnical FacultyUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  7. 7.Department of General Microbiology, Institute of MicrobiologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria
  8. 8.Department of Dermatology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Medical Mycology, Institute of Dermatology and Medical Mycology, Changzheng HospitalSecond Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina
  9. 9.State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of MicrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  10. 10.Geobotanik, Fakultät für Biologie und BiotechnologieRuhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany

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