Ecophysiological diversity of a novel member of the genus Alteromonas, and description of Alteromonas mediterranea sp. nov.
Nine non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative bacteria originally designated as Alteromonas macleodii deep-sea ecotypes, were isolated from seawater samples collected from four separate locations; two deep-sea sites in the Mediterranean Sea and surface water of the Aegean Sea and English Channel. The six strains studied in vitro were found to tolerate up to 20 % NaCl. The DNA–DNA relatedness between the deep-sea ecotype strains was found to be between 75 and 89 %, whilst relatedness with the validly named Alteromonas species was found to be between 31 and 69 %. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) amongst the deep-sea ecotype strains was found to be 98–100 %; the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 85–100 %; the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, 95–100 %; and the strains possessed 30–32 of the Karlin’s genomic signature dissimilarity. The ANI between the deep-sea ecotype strains and A. macleodii ATCC 27126T and Alteromonas australica H 17T was found to be 80.6 and 74.6 %, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the phenotypic data obtained in vitro and data retrieved in silico from whole genome sequences. The results of a phylogenetic study that incorporated a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) and genomic analysis, together with the physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, clearly indicated that the group of deep-sea ecotype strains represents a distinct species within the genus Alteromonas. Based on these data, a new species, Alteromonas mediterranea, is proposed. The type strain is DET ( = CIP 110805T = LMG 28347T = DSM 17117T).
KeywordsAlteromonas mediterranea Marine bacteria Taxonomy Phylogeny Genomic taxonomy MLPA MALDI-TOF MS New species
This study was partially supported by funds from Australian Research Council (ARC). The authors would like to thank Jun Ng for performing the MALDI-TOF MS analysis and Bio21 Institute for access to the MALDI-TOF MS instrument.
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