Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 106, Issue 6, pp 1223–1229 | Cite as

Aquimarina penaei sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

  • Xiaoyi Li
  • Liping Wang
  • Hui Huang
  • Qiliang Lai
  • Zongze ShaoEmail author
Original Paper


A novel bacterial strain designated P3-1T was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in Zhangpu, Fujian province, China. The isolate was found to be Gram-negative, long rod shaped, oxidase- and catalase- positive. Growth was observed at 1–7 % sea salt (w/v, optimum, 3 %), at pH 7.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 10–37 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The isolate was capable of hydrolysing gelatin, casein, starch and DNA but unable to degrade Tween 20, 40, 80 and cellulose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain P3-1T belongs to the genus Aquimarina, with highest sequence similarity to Aquimarina gracilis PSC32T (96.2 %), followed by Aquimarina intermedia KMM 6258T (96.1 %), Aquimarina spongiae A6T (95.9 %) and Aquimarina muelleri KMM 6020T (95.8 %). The principal cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3OH, C16:1 ω7c/ω6c, iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0 3OH, iso-C17:1 ω9c/C16:0 10-methyl and C16:0. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined to be 33.3 mol%. The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-6 (100 %). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain P3-1T represents a novel species within the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina penaei sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain P3-1T (=MCCC 1A09871T = LMG 27943T).


Aquimarina penaei sp. nov. Taxonomy Penaeus vannamei 



This work was financially supported by Public Welfare Project of SOA (201005032) and Scientific Research Foundation of the Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA (2012002).

Supplementary material

10482_2014_292_MOESM1_ESM.docx (561 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 561 kb)


  1. Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman J, Smith JA, Struhl K (2002) Short protocols in molecular biology: a compendium of methods from current protocols in molecular biology. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen WM, Sheu FS, Sheu SY (2012) Aquimarina salinaria sp. nov., a novel algicidal bacterium isolated from a saltpan. Arch Microbiol 194:103–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Collins MD (1985) Isoprenoid quinone analysis in bacterial classification and identification. In: Goodfellow M, Minnikin DE (eds) Chemical methods in bacterial systematics. Academic Press, London, pp 267–287Google Scholar
  4. Dong X, Cai M (2001) Determinative manual for routine bacteriology. Scientific Press (English translation), BeijingGoogle Scholar
  5. Felsenstein J (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17:368–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kennedy J, Margassery LM, O’Leary ND, O’Gara F, Morrissey J, Dobson AD (2014) Aquimarina amphilecti sp. nov., isolated from the sponge Amphilectus fucorum. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64:501–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kim O-S, Cho Y-J, Lee K, Yoon S-H, Kim M, Na H, Park S-C, Jeon YS, Lee J-H, Yi H (2012) Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:716–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lewin RA (1969) A classification of flexibacteria. J Gen Microbiol 58:189–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li GZ, Lai QL, Sun FQ, Liu XP, Xie YB, Du YP, Li GY, Shao ZZ (2013) Aquimarina atlantica sp. nov., isolated from surface seawater of the Atlantic Ocean. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 106:293–300. doi: 10.1007/s10482-014-0196-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lin B, Lu G, Zheng Y, Xie W, Li S, Hu Z (2012) Aquimarina agarilytica sp. nov., an agarolytic species isolated from a red alga. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:869–873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu C, Shao Z (2005) Alcanivorax dieselolei sp. nov., a novel alkane-degrading bacterium isolated from sea water and deep-sea sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1181–1186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mesbah M, Premachandran U, Whitman WB (1989) Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Miyazaki M, Nagano Y, Fujiwara Y, Hatada Y, Nogi Y (2010) Aquimarina macrocephali sp. nov., isolated from sediment adjacent to sperm whale carcasses. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:2298–2302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nedashkovskaya OI, Kim SB, Lysenko AM, Frolova GM, Mikhailov VV, Lee KH, Bae KS (2005) Description of Aquimarina muelleri gen. nov., sp. nov., and proposal of the reclassification of [Cytophaga] latercula Lewin 1969 as Stanierella latercula gen. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:225–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nedashkovskaya OI, Vancanneyt M, Christiaens L, Kalinovskaya NI, Mikhailov VV, Swings J (2006) Aquimarina intermedia sp. nov., reclassification of Stanierella latercula (Lewin 1969) as Aquimarina latercula comb. nov. and Gaetbulimicrobium brevivitae Yoon et al. 2006 as Aquimarina brevivitae comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Aquimarina. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:2037–2041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nedashkovskaya OI, Vancanneyt M, Kim S B (2011). Genus IV. Aquimarina. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 4:158–161Google Scholar
  17. Oh Y-S, Kahng H-Y, Lee YS, Yoon B-J, Lim S-B, Jung JS, Oh D-C, Lee D-H (2010) Aquimarina litoralis sp. nov., isolated from a Coastal Seawater. J Microbiol 48:433–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Park SC, Choe HN, Baik KS, Seong CN (2012) Aquimarina mytili sp. nov., isolated from the gut microflora of a mussel, Mytilus coruscus, and emended description of Aquimarina macrocephali. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:1974–1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Park SC, Choe HN, Baik KS, Seong CN (2013) Aquimarina gracilis sp. nov., isolated from the gut microflora of a mussel, Mytilus coruscus, and emended description of Aquimarina spongiae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:1782–1787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rzhetsky A, Nei M (1992) Statistical properties of the ordinary least-squares, generalized least-squares, and minimum-evolution methods of phylogenetic inference. J Mol Evol 35:367–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Sasser M (1990) Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids. MIDI Technical Note 101. Microbial ID, Inc, NewarkGoogle Scholar
  23. Shieh WY, Chen Y-W, Chaw S-M, Chiu H-H (2003) Vibrio ruber sp. nov., a red, facultatively anaerobic, marine bacterium isolated from sea water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:479–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28:2731–2739PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Tindall BJ (1990) Lipid composition of Halobacterium lacusprofundi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 66:199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yi H, Chun J (2011) Aquimarina addita sp. nov., isolated from seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:2445–2449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yoon JH, Kang SJ, Jung SY, Oh HW, Oh TK (2006) Gaetbulimicrobium brevivitae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a tidal flat of the Yellow Sea in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:115–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yoon BJ, You HS, Lee DH, Oh DC (2011) Aquimarina spongiae sp. nov., isolated from marine sponge Halichondria oshoro. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:417–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yu T, Yin Q, Song X, Zhao R, Shi X, Zhang XH (2013) Aquimarina longa sp. nov., isolated from seawater, and emended description of Aquimarina muelleri. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:1235–1240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yu T, Zhang Z, Fan X, Shi X, Zhang X-H (2014) Aquimarina megaterium sp. nov., isolated from seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64:122–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoyi Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Liping Wang
    • 1
  • Hui Huang
    • 1
  • Qiliang Lai
    • 1
  • Zongze Shao
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources; Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA; Collaborative Innovation Center of Deep Sea Biology; Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources of Fujian ProvinceXiamenChina
  2. 2.School of Marine ScienceNingbo UniversityNingboChina

Personalised recommendations