Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 104, Issue 3, pp 283–300 | Cite as

Biogenesis of [Fe–S] cluster in Firmicutes: an unexploited field of investigation

  • Gustavo Pelicioli Riboldi
  • Eduardo Preusser de Mattos
  • Jeverson Frazzon
Review Paper

Abstract

Iron–sulfur clusters (ISC) ([Fe–S]) are evolutionarily ancient and ubiquitous inorganic prosthetic groups present in almost all living organisms, whose biosynthetic assembly is dependent on complex protein machineries. [Fe–S] clusters are involved in biologically important processes, ranging from electron transfer catalysis to transcriptional regulatory roles. Three different systems involved in [Fe–S] cluster assembly have already been characterized in Proteobacteria, namely, the nitrogen fixation system, the ISC system and the sulfur assimilation system. Although they are well described in various microorganisms, these machineries are poorly characterized in members of the Firmicutes phylum, to which several groups of pathogenic bacteria belong. Recently, several research groups have made efforts to elucidate the biogenesis of [Fe–S] clusters at the molecular level in Firmicutes, and many important characteristics have been described. Considering the pivotal role of [Fe–S] clusters in a number of biological processes, the review presented here focuses on the description of the biosynthetic machineries for [Fe–S] cluster biogenesis in prokaryotes, followed by a discussion on recent results observed for Firmicutes [Fe–S] cluster assembly.

Keywords

[Fe–S] cluster biogenesis ISC machinery SUF machinery Firmicutes 

Supplementary material

10482_2013_9966_MOESM1_ESM.png (817 kb)
Predicted SufU protein lengths encoded by Firmicutes species. The figure represents the same microorganisms depicted in Fig. 3. Horizontal green bars represent the predicted polypeptide lengths of the sequences analyzed. AA: number of amino acids. (PNG 817 kb)
10482_2013_9966_MOESM2_ESM.png (640 kb)
Maximum likelihood analysis of IscU-like proteins distribution among Firmicutes. Left: Representative Firmicutes species encoding putative protein sequences homologous to Escherichia coli IscU, which seem to be mainly restricted to microorganisms from the Clostridia class. Blacks dots stand for bootstrap values >80. Right: Horizontal blue bars illustrate the predicted polypeptide lengths of the sequences analyzed. AA: number of amino acids. (PNG 640 kb)
10482_2013_9966_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (10 kb)
SufB alignment of Proteobacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Firmicutes (Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans) sequences. Conserved cysteine residues are highlighted in yellow. (PDF 10 kb)
10482_2013_9966_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (10 kb)
SufC alignment of Proteobacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Firmicutes (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus) sequences. The conserved glutamic acid residue of the active site is highlighted in green. (PDF 9 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo Pelicioli Riboldi
    • 1
  • Eduardo Preusser de Mattos
    • 3
  • Jeverson Frazzon
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Department of MicrobiologyFederal University of Health Science of Porto Alegre (UFCSPA)Porto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Biochemistry of MicroorganismsFood Science Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Medical Genetics Service, Department of GeneticsHospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, UFRGSPorto AlegreBrazil

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