Bacterioplankton community structure in the Arctic waters as revealed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes
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Fjords and open oceans are two typical marine ecosystems in the Arctic region, where glacial meltwater and sea ice meltwater have great effects on the bacterioplankton community structure during the summer season. This study aimed to determine the differences in bacterioplankton communities between these two ecosystems in the Arctic region. We conducted a detailed census of microbial communities in Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) and the Chukchi Borderland using high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant members of the bacterioplankton community in Kongsfjorden. By contrast, the most abundant bacterial groups in the surface seawater samples from the Chukchi Borderland were Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Differences in bacterial communities were found between the surface and subsurface waters in the investigation area of the Chukchi Borderland, and significant differences in bacterial community structure were also observed in the subsurface water between the shelf and deep basin areas. These results suggest the effect of hydrogeographic conditions on bacterial communities. Ubiquitous phylotypes found in all the investigated samples belonged to a few bacterial groups that dominate marine bacterioplankton communities. The sequence data suggested that changes in environmental conditions result in abundant rare phylotypes and reduced amounts of other phylotypes.