Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 105, Issue 1, pp 99–107 | Cite as

Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract contents of a flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus)

  • Qiliang Lai
  • Yang Liu
  • Zongze ShaoEmail author
Original Paper


A taxonomic study was carried out on strain HYC-10T, which was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of a flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, captured from the sea off Xiamen Island, China. The bacterium was observed to be Gram positive, oxidase and catalase positive, rod shaped, and motile by subpolar flagella. The bacterium was found to grow at salinities of 0–12 % and at temperatures of 8–45 °C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze aesculin and gelatin, but was unable to reduce nitrate to nitrite. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HYC-10T belongs to the genus Bacillus, with highest sequence similarity (99.3 %) to Bacillus aerophilus 28KT, Bacillus stratosphericus 41KF2aT and Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631T, followed by Bacillus safensis DSM 19292T (99.5 %) and Bacillus pumilus DSM 27T (99.5 %), while the sequence similarities to others were all below 97.6 %. The genomic ANIm values between strain HYC-10T and three type strains (B. altitudinis DSM 21631T, B. safensis DSM 19292T and B. pumilus DSM 27T) were determined to range from 89.11 to 91.53 %. The DNA–DNA hybridization estimate values between strain HYC-10T and the three type strains were from 36.60 to 44.00 %. The principal fatty acids identified were iso-C15:0 (39.1 %), anteiso-C15:0 (22.7 %), iso-C17:0 (13.1 %), C16:0 (6.1 %), anteiso-C17:0 (5.8 %) and iso-C16:0 (5.1 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined from the draft genome sequence to be 41.3 mol%. The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-7 (100 %). Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, aminoglycolipid, two glycolipids and two unknown phospholipids were found to be present. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain HYC-10T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain HYC-10T (=CGMCC NO.1.12326T = LMG 27143T = MCCC 1A00008T).


Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov. Taxonomy Mugil cephalus ANI DDH 



Marine Culture Collection of China


China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center



This work was financially supported by Public Welfare Project of SOA (201005032) and National Infrastructure of Natural Resources for Science and Technology Program of China (Nos. NIMR-2011-9, NIMR-2012-9).

Supplementary material

10482_2013_57_MOESM1_ESM.docx (433 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 433 kb)


  1. Auch AF, Klenk HP, Goker M (2010a) Standard operating procedure for calculating genome-to-genome distances based on high-scoring segment pairs. Stand Genomic Sci 2:142–148PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auch AF, von Jan M, Klenk HP, Goker M (2010b) Digital DNA–DNA hybridization for microbial species delineation by means of genome-to-genome sequence comparison. Stand Genomic Sci 2:117–134PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37:911–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Didari M, Amoozegar MA, Bagheri M, Schumann P, Sproer C, Sanchez-Porro C, Ventosa A (2012) Alteribacillus bidgolensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake, and reclassification of Bacillus persepolensis as Alteribacillus persepolensis comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:2691–2697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dong X-Z, Cai M-Y (2001) Determinative manual for routine bacteriology. Scientific Press (English translation), BeijingGoogle Scholar
  6. Felsenstein J (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17:368–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gottheil O (1901) Botanische beschreibung einiger bodenbakterien. Abteilung II. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene 7:680–691Google Scholar
  8. Ivanova EP, Vysotskii MV, Svetashev VI, Nedashkovskaya OI, Gorshkova NM, Mikhailov VV, Yumoto N, Shigeri Y, Taguchi T, Yoshikawa S (2010) Characterization of Bacillus strains of marine origin. Int Microbiol 2:267–271Google Scholar
  9. Ki JS, Zhang W, Qian PY (2009) Discovery of marine Bacillus species by 16S rRNA and rpoB comparisons and their usefulness for species identification. J Microbiol Methods 77:48–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim OS, Cho YJ, Lee K, Yoon SH, Kim M, Na H, Park SC, Jeon YS, Lee JH, Yi H, Won S, Chun J (2012) Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:716–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lai Q, Liu Y, Shao Z (2012) Genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain HYC-10, isolated from intestinal tract contents from a marine fish (Mugil cephalus). J Bacteriol 194:6991PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Meier-Kolthoff JP, Auch AF, Klenk HP, Goker M (2013) Genome sequence-based species delimitation with confidence intervals and improved distance functions. BMC Bioinform 14:60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mukherjee S, Das P, Sivapathasekaran C, Sen R (2009) Antimicrobial biosurfactants from marine Bacillus circulans: extracellular synthesis and purification. Lett Appl Microbiol 48:281–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Oguntoyinbo F (2007) Monitoring of marine Bacillus diversity among the bacteria community of sea water. Afr J Biotechnol 6:163–166Google Scholar
  15. Reiss R, Ihssen J, Thöny-Meyer L (2011) Bacillus pumilus laccase: a heat stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum. BMC Biotechnol 11:9PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Richter M, Rossello-Mora R (2009) Shifting the genomic gold standard for the prokaryotic species definition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:19126–19131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rzhetsky A, Nei M (1993) Theoretical foundation of the minimum-evolution method of phylogenetic inference. Mol Biol Evol 10:1073–1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring HarborGoogle Scholar
  20. Sasser M (1990) Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids (technical note no. 101)Google Scholar
  21. Satomi M, La Duc MT, Venkateswaran K (2006) Bacillus safensis sp. nov., isolated from spacecraft and assembly–facility surfaces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:1735–1740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shieh WY, Chen YW, Chaw SM, Chiu HH (2003) Vibrio ruber sp. nov., a red, facultatively anaerobic, marine bacterium isolated from sea water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:479–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shivaji S, Chaturvedi P, Suresh K, Reddy GS, Dutt CB, Wainwright M, Narlikar JV, Bhargava PM (2006) Bacillus aerius sp. nov., Bacillus aerophilus sp. nov., Bacillus stratosphericus sp. nov. and Bacillus altitudinis sp. nov., isolated from cryogenic tubes used for collecting air samples from high altitudes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:1465–1473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Siefert JL, Larios-Sanz M, Nakamura LK, Slepecky RA, Paul JH, Moore ERB, Fox GE, Jurtshuk JP (2000) Phylogeny of marine Bacillus isolates from the Gulf of Mexico. Curr Microbiol 41:84–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Skerman VBD (1967) A guide to the identification of the genera of bacteria, 2nd edn. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  26. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28:2731–2739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tindall B (1990a) A comparative study of the lipid composition of Halobacterium saccharovorum from various sources. Syst Appl Microbiol 13:128–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tindall B (1990b) Lipid composition of Halobacterium lacusprofundi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 66:199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tindall BJ, Sikorski J, Smibert RM, Kreig NR (2007) Phenotypic characterization and the principles of comparative systematics. In: Reddy CA, Beveridge TJ, Breznak JA, Marzluf G, Schmidt TM, Snyder LR (eds) Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, 3rd edn. ASM Press, Washington DC, pp 330–393Google Scholar
  30. Wang LT, Lee FL, Tai CJ, Kasai H (2007) Comparison of gyrB gene sequences, 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA–DNA hybridization in the Bacillus subtilis group. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1846–1850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wayne LG, Brenner DJ, Colwell RR, Grimont PAD, Kandler O, Krichevsky MI, Moore LH, Moore WEC, Murray RGE, Stackebrandt E, Starr MP, Trüper HG (1987) Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources of Fujian ProvinceXiamenChina

Personalised recommendations