Production, characteristics and applications of the cell-bound phytase of Pichia anomala
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Among several yeasts isolated from dried flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa, Pichia anomala produced a high titre of cell-bound phytase. The optimization of fermentation variables led to formulation of media and selection of cultural variables that supported enhanced phytase production. The enzyme productivity was very high in fed batch fermentation in air-lift fermentor as compared to that in stirred tank fermentor. Amelioration in the cell-bound phytase activity was observed when yeast cells were permeabilized with Triton-X-100. The enzyme is thermostable and acid stable with broad substrate specificity, the characteristics that are desirable for enzymes to be used in the animal feed industry. The phytase-encoding gene was cloned and sequenced. The 3D structure of the enzyme was proposed by comparative modeling using phytase of Debaryomyces occidentalis (50% sequence identity) as template. When broiler chicks, and fresh water and marine fishes were fed with the feed supplemented with yeast biomass containing phytase, improvement in growth and phosphorus retention, and decrease in the excretion of phosphorus in the faeces were recorded. The cell-bound phytase of P. anomala could effectively dephytinize wheat flour and soymilk.
KeywordsPichia anomala Phytase Phytic acid Animal feed Broiler chicks Aquaculture
We wish to thank the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India) for the award of fellowships to AV and PK, and to DAAD (Germany), Department of Biotechnology and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (Government of India) for providing financial assistance for carrying out the work. We gratefully acknowledge the help extended in testing the applicability of the enzyme in poultry and aquaculture by Dr. S. K. Rastogi (Pantnagar), and Prof. I. J. Singh (Pantnagar) and Dr. K. Altaff (Chennai), and to Prof. G. Kunze (Germany) in cloning the phytase gene.
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