Yeast microbiota associated with spontaneous sourdough fermentations in the production of traditional wheat sourdough breads of the Abruzzo region (Italy)
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The aims of this study were to describe the yeast community of 20 sourdoughs collected from central Italy and to characterize the sourdoughs based on chemical properties. A polyphasic approach consisting of traditional culture-based tests (spore-forming and physiological tests) and molecular techniques (PCR-RFLP, RAPD-PCR, PCR-DGGE) and chemical analysis (total acidity, acids, and sugar contents), was utilized to describe the yeast population and to investigate the chemical composition of the doughs. PCR-RFLP analysis identified 85% of the isolates as Saccharomycescerevisiae, with the other dominant species being Candidamilleri (11%), Candidakrusei (2.5%), and Torulaspora delbrueckii (1%). RAPD-PCR analysis, performed with primers M13 and LA1, highlighted intraspecific polymorphism among the S. cerevisiae strains. The diversity of the sourdoughs from the Abruzzo region is reflected in the chemical composition, yeast species, and strain polymorphism. Our approach using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods identified the yeast species in the 20 sourdough samples and provided a complete overview of the yeast populations found in sourdoughs from the Abruzzo region.