Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, 94:615 | Cite as

Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal isolates from Turkey

  • Abdullah KilicEmail author
  • Gurkan Mert
  • Zeynep Senses
  • Orhan Bedir
  • Hakan Aydogan
  • A. Celal Basustaoglu
  • Peter C. Appelbaum
Short Communication


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonize most frequently in the anterior nares of the nose and cause serious infections all over the world. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA strains in Turkish elementary school children. We also analyzed molecular characterizations of MRSA strains by using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi locus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and detection of the Panton-valentine leucocidin (PVL) gene. The nasal swabs were obtained from 4,050 children during a 4 month period in Ankara. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 1 μg oxacillin and 30 μg cefoxitin was determined by a disk diffusion method. We found that the 1,001 of 4,050 (24.7%) children were colonized with S. aureus. Three S. aureus strains were resistant to oxacillin and cefoxitin. The rate of MRSA among all children was 0.07%. The MRSA strains revealed three different PFGE pattern. All MRSA isolates by harbored the SCCmec type IV element, but not the PVL gene. The two MRSA isolate belonged to sequence type (ST) 30, whereas the other one was a unique type. The results of this study demonstrated that S. aureus nasal carriage rate was consistent with previous studies. However, MRSA carriage rate was low. This study also indicated that the ST30-type IV without PVL gene MRSA clone may be expected to spread in Turkish community.


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal carriage Molecular characterization 



This work was supported by the Gulhane Military Medical Academy Research and Progress Center with Grant No. AR-2006/52. We thank to Yi Wei Tang from Vanderbilt University Medical Center for providing positive control DNA for SCCmec-I, II, III, IV, V, and PVL, Klaudia Kosowska-Shick from Hershey Medical Center for critically reviewing the manuscript and Aylin Uskudar Guclu, Mustafa Orhon, and Gokhan Doğandemir for their excellent technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdullah Kilic
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gurkan Mert
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zeynep Senses
    • 1
  • Orhan Bedir
    • 1
  • Hakan Aydogan
    • 1
  • A. Celal Basustaoglu
    • 1
  • Peter C. Appelbaum
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Clinical MicrobiologyGulhane Military Medical Academy, School of MedicineAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Infectious DiseasesGulhane Military Medical Academy and School of MedicineAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of PathologyHershey Medical CenterHersheyUSA

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