Identification of disulfide reductases in Campylobacterales: a bioinformatics investigation
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Disulfide reductases of host-colonising bacteria are involved in the expression of virulence factors, resistance to drugs, and elimination of toxic compounds. Large-scale genome analyses of 281 prokaryotes identified CXXC and CXXC-derived motifs in each microorganism. The total number of these motifs showed correlations with genome size and oxygen tolerance of the prokaryotes. Specific bioinformatic analyses served to identify putative disulfide reductases in the Campylobacterales Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Wolinella succinogenes and Arcobacter butzleri which colonise the gastrointestinal tract of higher animals. Three filters applied to the genomes of these species yielded 35, 25, 28 and 34 genes, respectively, encoding proteins with the characteristics of disulfide reductases. Ten proteins were common to the four species, including four belonging to the thioredoxin system. The presence of thioredoxin reductase activities was detected in the four bacterial species by observing dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid reduction with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as cofactor. Phylogenetic analyses of the thioredoxin reductases TrxB1 and TrxB2 of the four Campylobacterales were performed. Their TrxB1 proteins were more closely related to those of Firmicutes than to the corresponding proteins of other Proteobacteria. The Campylobacterales TrxB2 proteins were closer to glutathione reductases of other organisms than to their respective TrxB1 proteins. The phylogenetic features of the Campylobacterales thioredoxin reductases suggested a special role for these enzymes in the physiology of these bacteria.
KeywordsCampylobacterales Disulfide reductase Genome analyses Phylogeny
This work was made possible by the support of the Australian Research Council and by grants SFB621/B8 from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and PTJ-BIO 031U213B from the BMBF Competence Center PathoGenoMik.
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