Advertisement

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 90, Issue 3, pp 257–268 | Cite as

Exophiala xenobiotica sp. nov., an opportunistic black yeast inhabiting environments rich in hydrocarbons

  • G. S. De Hoog
  • J. S. Zeng
  • M. J. Harrak
  • D. A. Sutton
Original paper

Abstract

A new black yeast species, Exophiala xenobiotica, is described, a segregant of the Exophiala jeanselmei complex. It is morphologically very similar to E. jeanselmei, though with less melanized conidiogenous cells, but deviates unambiguously on the basis of molecular phylogeny. The species is a relatively common agent of cutaneous infections in humans, whereas E. jeanselmei is associated with subcutaneous infections. Environmental strains of E. xenobiotica are frequently found in habitats rich in monoaromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes.

Keywords

Black yeast Exophiala jeanselmei Taxonomy Ecology Cutaneous infection Hydrocarbon 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

K. Sterflinger (Vienna, Austria), U. Hölker (Bonn, Germany), L. Sigler (Edmonton, Canada), G. Haase (Aachen, Germany) and the curator of the IFM culture collection (Chiba, Japan) are acknowledged for sending strains. A. H. G. Gerrits van den Ende and K. F. Luijsterburg are thanked for technical assistance, and R.C. Summerbell for comments on the text.

References

  1. Arias M, Stotzky G (1997) Adsorption and binding of copper and lead by Exophiala sp. Abstr Gen Meet ASM 97:497Google Scholar
  2. Cox HHJ, Moerman RE, Van Baalen S, Van Heyningen WJM, Doddema HJ, Harder W (1997) Performance of a styrene-degrading biofilter containing the yeast Exophiala jeanselmei. Biotechnol Bioeng 53:259–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. De Hoog GS, Guarro J, Gené J, Figueras MJ (2000) Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures/Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Utrecht/ReusGoogle Scholar
  4. De Hoog GS, Vicente V, Caligiorne RB, Kantargliocu S, Tintelnot K, Gerrits van den Ende AHG, Haase G (2003) Species diversity and polymorphism in the Exophiala spinifera clade containing opportunistic black yeast-like fungi. J Clin Microbiol 41:4767–4778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Hoog GS (1977) Rhinocladiella and allied genera. Stud Mycol 15:141–144Google Scholar
  6. De Rijk P, De Wachter R (1993) DCSE v. 2.54, an interactive tool for sequence alignment and secondary structure research. Comput Appl Biosci 9:735–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Elborn JS (1999) Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in cystic fibrosis. Thorax 54:377–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Engemann J, Kaye K, Cox G, Perfect J, Schell W,␣McGarry SA, Patterson K, Edupuganti S, Cook P, Rutala WA, Weber DJ, Hoffmann KK, Engel J, Young S, Durant E, McKinnon K, Cobb N, Bell L,␣Gibson J, Jernigan D, Arduino M, Fridkin S, Archibald L, Sehulster L, Morgan J, Hajjeh R, Brandt M, Warnock D, Duffus WA (2002) Exophiala infection from contaminated injectable steroids prepared by a compounding pharmacy. Center for Disease Control (CDC) Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 51:1109–1112Google Scholar
  9. Göttlich E, Van der Lubbe W, Lange B, Fiedler S, Melchert I, Reifenrath M, Flemming H-C, De Hoog GS (2002) Fungal flora in groundwater-derived public drinking water. Int J Hyg Environ Health 205:269–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Haase G, Sonntag L, Melzer-Krick B, De Hoog GS (1999) Phylogenetic inference by SSU-gene analysis of members of the Herpotrichiellaceae with special reference to human pathogenic species. Stud Mycol 43:80–97Google Scholar
  11. Hölker U, Bend J, Pracht R, Müller T, Tetsch L, De Hoog GS (2003) Hortaea acidophila, a new acidophilic black yeast from lignite. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 86: 287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iwatsu T, Miyaji M, Okamoto S (1981) Isolation of Phialophora verrucosa and Fonsecaea pedrosoi from nature in Japan. Mycopathologia 75: 149–158.Google Scholar
  13. Iwatsu T, Nishimura K, Miyaji M (1984) Exophiala castellanii sp. nov. Mycotaxon 20:307–314Google Scholar
  14. Kawasaki M, Ishizaki H, Matsumoto T, Matsuda T, Nishimura K, Miyaji M (1999) Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Exophiala jeanselmei var. lecanii-corni and Exophiala castellanii. Mycopathologia 146:75–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Langeron M (1928) Mycétome à Torula jeanselmei Langeron, 1928. Nouveau type de mycétome à grains noirs. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 6:385–403Google Scholar
  16. Ludwig W, Strunk O, Westram R, Richter L, Meier H, Yadhukumar, Buchner A, Lai T, Steppi S, Jobb G, Forster W, Brettske I, Gerber S, Ginhart AW, Gross␣O, Grumann S, Hermann S, Jost R, Konig A, Liss T, Lussmann R, May M, Nonhoff B, Reichel B, Strehlow R, Stamatakis A, Stuckmann N, Vilbig A, Lenke M, Ludwig T, Bode A, Schleifer KH (2004) ARB: a software environment for sequence data. Nucleic Acids Res 32: 1363–1371.Google Scholar
  17. Matos T, De Hoog GS, De Boer AG, De Crom I, Haase G (2002) High prevalence of the neurotrope Exophiala dermatitidis and related oligotrophic black yeasts in sauna facilities. Mycoses 45:373–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matsuda M, Naka W, Tajima S, Harada T, Nishikawa T, Kaufman L, Standard P (1989) Deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization studies of Exophiala dermatitidis and Exophiala jeanselmei. Microbiol Immunol 33:631–639Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis MR, Padhye AA (1977) Exophiala jeanselmei, a new combination for Phialophora jeanselmei. Mycotaxon 5:341–352Google Scholar
  20. Middelhoven WJ (1993) Catabolism of benzene compounds by ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts and yeastlike fungi. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 63:125–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Middelhoven WJ, De Hoog GS, Notermans C (1989) Carbon assimilation and extracellular antigens of some yeast-like fungi. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 55:165–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murray IG, Dunkerley GE, Hughes KEA (1963) A case of Madura foot caused by Phialophora jeanselmei. Sabouraudia 3:175–177Google Scholar
  23. National National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (2002) Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of conidium forming filamentous fungi. Proposed standard M38-A. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pa.Google Scholar
  24. Neumeister B, Zollner TM, Krieger D, Sterry W, Marre R (1995) Mycetoma due to Exophiala jeanselmei and Mycobacterium chelonae in a 73-year-old man with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. Mycoses 38:271–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nucci M, Akiti T, Barreiros G, Silveira F, Revankar SG, Wickes BL, Sutton DA, Patterson TF (2002) Nosocomial outbreak of Exophiala jeanselmei fungemia associated with contamination of hospital water. Clin Infect Dis 34:1475–1480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Page RDM (1996) TREEVIEW: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12:357–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Phillips G, McEwan H, McKay I, Crowe G, McBeath J (1998) Black pigmented fungi in the water pipe-work supplying endoscope washer disinfectors. J Hosp Infect 40:250–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Porteous NB, Redding SW, Thompson EH, Grooters AM, De Hoog GS, Sutton DA (2003) The isolation of an unusual fungus in treated dental unit waterlines. J Am Dent Assoc 134:467–476Google Scholar
  29. Prenafeta-Boldú FX, Kuhn A, Luykx DMAM, Anke H, Van Groenestijn JW, De Bont J (2001) Isolation and characterisation of fungi growing on volatile aromatic hydrocarbons as their sole carbon and energy source. Mycol Res 105:477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Prenafeta-Boldú FX, Summerbell R, De Hoog GS (2006) Fungi growing on aromatic hydrocarbons: biotechnology’s unexpected encounter with biohazard. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:109–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sterflinger K, Prillinger H (2001) Molecular taxonomy and biodiversity of rock fungal communities in an urban environment (Vienna, Austria). Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 80:275–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sutton DA, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG (1998) Guide to clinically significant fungi. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  33. Sutton DA, Sanche SE, Revankar SG, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG (1999a) In vitro amphotericin B resistance in clinical isolates of Aspergillus terreus, with a head-to-head comparison to voriconazole. J Clin Microbiol 37:2343–2345Google Scholar
  34. Swofford DL (2000) PAUP* 4.0: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  35. Untereiner WA (1994) A simple method for the in vitro production of pseudothecia in species of Capronia. Mycologia 86:290–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Van de Peer Y, De Wachter R (1994) Treecon for Windows: a software package for the construction and drawing of evolutionary trees for the Microsoft Windows environment. Comput Appl Biosci 10:569–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Vitale RG, De Hoog GS (2002) Molecular diversity, new species and antifungal susceptibilities in the Exophiala spinifera clade. Med Mycol 40:545–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang L, Yokoyama K, Miyaji M, Nishimura K (2001) Identification, classification and phylogeny of the pathogenic species Exophiala jeanselmeiand related species by mitochondrial cytochrome b gene analysis. J Clin Microbiol 39:4462–4467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Watson PR, Sanford PA, Burton KA, Cadmus MC, Jeanes A (1976) An extracellular fungal polysaccharide composed of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucuronic acid residues. Carbohydr Res 46:259–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Woollons A, Darley CR, Pandian S, Blackee J, Paul J (1996) Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis following intra-articular steroid injection. Br J Dermatol 135:475–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zeng JS, Sutton DA, De Hoog GS (2006) Identification and antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of the genus Exophiala from the USA (submitted)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. S. De Hoog
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. S. Zeng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. J. Harrak
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. A. Sutton
    • 4
  1. 1.Centraalbureau voor SchimmelculturesUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem DynamicsAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong Science and Technology UniversityWuhan, HubeiP.R. China
  4. 4.Fungus Testing Laboratory, Department of PathologyUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterSan Antonio, TexasUSA

Personalised recommendations