Advertisement

Theory building using SAP-LAP linkages: an application in the context of disaster management

Applications of OR in Disaster Relief Operations

Abstract

Management of disaster relief operations is a complex task involving pre-disaster, during disaster and post-disaster operations. It requires the involvement and coordination of multiple actors and processes. Traditionally, operations research applications in general and specifically for disaster relief have been made, largely, on quantitative and analytical front. There is a lack of qualitative and interpretive approaches in operations research applications. This paper uses an interpretive method, SAP-LAP (situation, actor, process, learning, action, performance) framework and linkages, in the context of disaster management. It enables to develop a theoretical framework for disaster management answering the fundamental questions of theory building. The paper first provides a selective review of disaster management and identifies the gap in building theoretical framework for the same. It then describes the methodology in terms of SAP-LAP framework and linkages with a broad appreciation of its application in operations as well as strategic management. This methodology is applied to develop a theoretical framework for disaster management. The paper finally discusses both the theoretical and practical implications of the proposed framework and concludes with future directions of research.

Keywords

Disaster management SAP-LAP framework SAP-LAP linkages Theory building 

References

  1. Agarwal, A., & Vrat, P. (2014). Bio inspired managerial insights for a flexible and efficient organization: A SAP-LAP analysis. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 15(4), 345–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agostinho, C. F. (2013). Humanitarian logistics: How to help even more? IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 46(24), 206–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arshinder, Kanda, A., & Deshmukh, S. G. (2007). Supply chain coordination issues: An SAP-LAP framework. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 19(3), 240–264.Google Scholar
  4. Balcik, B., Beamon, B. M., Krejci, C. C., Muramatsu, K. M., & Ramirez, M. (2010). Coordination in humanitarian relief chains: Practices, challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Production Economics, 126(1), 22–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banwet, D. K., & Pramod, V. R. (2010a). SAP-LAP hills: A new approach for strategic change management. Global Journal of Flexible Systems and Management, 11(3), 11–20.Google Scholar
  6. Banwet, D. K., & Pramod, V. R. (2010b). System modeling of telecom service sector supply chain: A SAP-LAP analysis. International Journal of Business Excellence, 3(1), 38–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beamon, B. M., & Balcik, B. (2008). Performance measurement in humanitarian relief chains. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 21(1), 4–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhardwaj, B. R., & Momaya, K. (2006). Role of organizational flexibility for corporate entrepreneurship: Case study of FedEx Corporation. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 7(1/2), 37–44.Google Scholar
  9. Bhardwaj, B. R., Sushil, & Momaya, K. (2011). Case studies of social entrepreneurship in Indian context: SAP-LAP learning critical success factors. International Journal of Economics Management and Engineering, 2(2/3), 231–251.Google Scholar
  10. Birla, B., & Taneja, U. (2010). Public private partnerships for health care delivery in India: Assessing efficiency for appropriate health policies. The Internet Journal of World Health and Societal Politics, 7, 1–17.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, C., Milke, M., & Seville, E. (2011). Disaster waste management: A review article. Waste Management, 31(6), 1085–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charan, P. (2012). Supply chain performance issues in an automobile company: A SAP-LAP analysis. Measuring Business Excellence, 16(1), 67–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaudhuri, R., & Patil, P. (2009). Conceptualizing microfinance initiatives in India Using SAP-LAP model: A new paradigm in marketing engineering. Indian Journal of Marketing, 39(6), 23–29.Google Scholar
  14. Chauhan, G., & Singh, T. P. (2013). Resource flexibility for lean manufacturing: SAP-LAP analysis of a case study. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 4(4), 370–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Checkland, P. (1981). Systems thinking, systems practice. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Christopher, M., & Tatham, P. (Eds.). (2011). Humanitarian logistics: Meeting the challenge of preparing for and responding to disasters. London: Kogan Page Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis, L. B., Samanlioglu, F., Qu, X., & Root, S. (2013). Inventory planning and coordination in disaster relief efforts. International Journal of Production Economics, 141(2), 561–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de la Torre, L. E., Dolinskaya, I. S., & Smilowitz, K. R. (2012). Disaster relief routing: Integrating research and practice. Socio-Economic Planning Science, 46(2), 88–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dubey, R., & Gunasekaran, A. (2015). The sustainable humanitarian supply chain design: Agility, adaptability and alignment. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 19(1), 62–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dubey, R., Gunasekaran, A., Sushil, & Singh, T. (2015). Building theory of sustainable manufacturing using total interpretive structural modelling. International Journal of Systems Science: Operations and Logistics, 2(4), 231–247.Google Scholar
  22. Gangotra, A., & Shankar, R. (2016). Strategies in managing risks in the adoption of business analytics practices: A case study of a telecom service provider. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 29(3), 374–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ghosh, K., & Sahney, S. (2010). Organizational sociotechnical diagnosis of managerial retention in an IT organization: SAP-LAP framework. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 18(1), 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gupta, S. (2014). Exploration and optimization on supply chain risk management strategies in Indian automobile industry: Using SAP-LAP. International Journal of Engineering Technology and Management Research, 2(2), 58–64.Google Scholar
  25. Gustavsson, L. (2003). Humanitarian logistics: Context and challenges. Forced Migration Review, 18(6), 6–8.Google Scholar
  26. Heaslip, G., Sharif, A. M., & Althonayan, A. (2012). Employing a systems-based perspective to the identification of inter-relationships within humanitarian logistics. International Journal of Production Economics, 139(2), 377–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Husain, Z., & Sushil, (1997). Management of technology—Learning issues for seven Indian companies. Technology Management: Applications and Strategies for Practitioners, 3, 109–135.Google Scholar
  28. Husain, Z., Sushil, & Pathak, R. D. (2002). A technology management perspective on collaborations in Indian automobile industry: A case study. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 19(2), 167–201.Google Scholar
  29. Iyengar, V., Behl, A., Pillai, S., & Londhe, B. (2016). Analysis of palliative care process through SAP-LAP inquiry: Case study on Palliative Care and Training Centre. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 17(4), 403–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kabra, G., & Ramesh, A. (2015). Analyzing ICT issues in humanitarian supply chain management: A SAP-LAP linkages framework. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 16(2), 157–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kak, A. (2004). Strategic management, core competence and flexibility: Learning issues for select pharmaceutical organizations. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 5(4), 1–16.Google Scholar
  32. Karnatak, K., & Mitra, A. (2015). Establishing visibility across the value chain of a beverage giant by implementing flexible systems. In Sushil & G. Chroust (Eds.), Systemic flexibility and business agility. Flexible systems management (pp. 285–303). New Delhi: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Karunasena, G., Amaratunga, D., & Haigh, R. (2012). Post-disaster construction and demolition debris management: A Sri Lanka case study. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 18(4), 457–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kent, R. C. (2004). The United Nations’ humanitarian pillar: Refocusing the UN’s disaster and emergency roles and responsibilities. Disasters, 28(2), 216–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kovács, G., & Spens, K. M. (2007). Humanitarian logistics in disaster relief operations. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 37(2), 99–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kumar, N., & Chand, M. (2012). Analysis of SAP-LAP framework in supply chain management: A case study. International Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, 6(1), 33–38.Google Scholar
  37. Kumar, R., Singh, R. K., & Shankar, R. (2012). Supply chain management issues in an Indian SME: A SAP-LAP analysis. Journal of Supply Chain Management Systems, 1(2), 34–44.Google Scholar
  38. Kunz, N., & Gold, S. (2015). Sustainable humanitarian supply chain management-exploring new theory. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications. doi: 10.1080/13675567.2015.1103845.
  39. Lijo, A. J., & Ramesh, A. (2012). Humanitarian supply chain management in India: A SAP-LAP framework. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 9(2), 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Likhi, D. K., & Sushil, (2013). Building international strategic alliance capability: A case research-based insights. International Journal of Business Performance Management, 14(4), 341–355.Google Scholar
  41. Luthra, S., Garg, D., & Haleem, A. (2014). Greening the supply chain using SAP-LAP analysis: A case study of an auto ancillary company in India. International Journal of Business Excellence, 7(6), 724–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mahajan, R., Garg, S., & Sharma, P. B. (2013). Frozen corn manufacturing and its supply chain: Case study using SAP-LAP approach. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 14(3), 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Majumdar, S. K., & Gupta, M. P. (2001). E-business strategy of car industry: SAP-LAP analysis of select case studies. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 2(3), 13–29.Google Scholar
  44. Mangla, S. K., Kumar, P., & Barua, M. K. (2014). A flexible decision framework for building risk mitigation strategies in green supply chain using SAP-LAP and IRP approaches. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 15(3), 203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McEntire, D. A. (1999). Issues in disaster relief: Progress, perpetual problems and prospective solutions. Disaster Prevention and Management, 8(5), 351–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McEntire, D. A. (2002). Coordinating multi-organizational responses to disaster: Lessons from the March 28, 2000, Fort Worth, Tornado. Disaster Prevention and Management, 11(5), 369–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McLachlin, R., & Larson, P. D. (2011). Building humanitarian supply chain relationships: Lessons from leading practitioners. Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 1(1), 32–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Momaya, K. S., & Chachondia, S. (2013). Technology management to accelerate competitiveness journey: Exploratory case of a renewable energy focal firm from India. In Driving the economy through innovation and entrepreneurship (pp. 51–61), Springer India, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  49. Oloruntoba, R., & Gray, R. (2006). Humanitarian aid: An agile supply chain? Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 11(2), 115–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Palanisamy, R. (2012). Building information systems flexibility in SAP-LAP framework: A case study evidence from SME sector. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 13(1), 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pateman, H., Hughes, K., & Cahoon, S. (2013). Humanizing humanitarian supply chains: A synthesis of key challenges. The Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, 29(1), 81–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Patterson, D. A. (2005). Rescuing our families, our neighbours, and ourselves. Communications of the ACM, 48(11), 29–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Raju, E., & Becker, P. (2013). Multi-organisational coordination for disaster recovery: The story of post-tsunami Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 4, 82–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ransikarbum, K., & Mason, S. J. (2016). Multiple-objective analysis of integrated relief supply and network restoration in humanitarian logistics operations. International Journal of Production Research, 54(1), 49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ravi, V. (2014). Reverse logistics operations in automobile industry: A case study using SAP-LAP approach. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 15(4), 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rawani, A. M., & Gupta, M. P. (2001). Flexible framework for strategic information systems planning: A case study from banking sector. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 2(2), 37–54.Google Scholar
  57. Roshan, R. (2014). Ex-post investigation of ERP business value in an Indian organization. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 4(7), 56–59.Google Scholar
  58. Sahoo, T., Banwet, D. K., & Momaya, K. (2010). Strategic technology management in practice: Dynamic SAP-LAP analysis of an auto component manufacturing firm in India. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 11(1/2), 13–24.Google Scholar
  59. Sahoo, T., Banwet, D. K., & Momaya, K. (2011). Strategic technology management in practice: SAP-LAP hills analysis of an automobile manufacturer in India. International Journal of Business Excellence, 4(5), 519–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sandwell, C. (2011). A qualitative study exploring the challenges of humanitarian organizations. Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 1(2), 132–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sastry, G. V. R. (2016). Technology integration among stakeholders in services sector: A case study. In Sushil, K. T. Bhal, & S. P. Singh (Eds.), Managing flexibility: People, process, technology and business. Flexible systems management (pp. 311–321). New Delhi: Springer.Google Scholar
  62. Schmitt, T., Eisenberg, J., & Rao, R. R. (Eds.). (2007). Improving disaster management: The role of IT in mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  63. Shalender, K., & Singh, N. (2014). Understanding product flexibility using SAP-LAP approach. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 22(2), 104–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sharma, O. P. (2001). Incorporating flexibility in manufacturing and operations: A case study in the Indian context. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 2(1), 29–42.Google Scholar
  65. Shukla, R. K., Garg, D., & Agarwal, A. (2011). Study of select issues related to supply chain coordination: Using SAP-LAP analysis framework. Global Journal of Enterprise Information System, 3(2), 56–69.Google Scholar
  66. Siddiqui, F., Haleem, A., & Sharma, C. (2012). Strategic planning of service supply chain using dynamic SAP-LAP model: A case study of a leading gas organization in India. International Journal of Services, Economics and Management, 4(3), 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Singh, A. N., Picot, A., Kranz, J., Gupta, M. P., & Ojha, A. (2013). Information security management (ISM) practices: Lessons from select cases from India and Germany. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 14(4), 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Singh, N., & Shalender, K. (2014). Success of Tata Nano through marketing flexibility: A SAP-LAP matrices and linkages approach. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 15(2), 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Soni, A., & Choudhary, V. K. (2013). Exploration and optimizing of internal supply chain management for manufacturing industry using SAP-LAP. International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology and Engineering, 2(10), 54–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Suri, P. K. (2005). Strategic insights into an E-governance project—A case study of AGMARKNET based on SAP-LAP framework. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 6(3/4), 39–48.Google Scholar
  71. Suri, P. K., & Sushil, (2008). Towards a strategy for implementing e-governance applications: A case study of integrated fertilizers management information system based on SAP-LAP framework. Electronic Government, An International Journal, 5(4), 420–444.Google Scholar
  72. Suri, P. K., & Sushil, (2017). Strategic planning and implementation of e-governance, Flexible systems management. Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
  73. Sushil. (1997). Flexible systems management—An evolving paradigm. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 14(4), 259–275.Google Scholar
  74. Sushil. (2000a). Situation–actor–process options: Mapping and enhancing flexibility. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 17(3), 301–309.Google Scholar
  75. Sushil. (2000b). SAP-LAP models of inquiry. Management Decision, 38(5), 347–353.Google Scholar
  76. Sushil. (2001a). SAP-LAP framework. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 2(1), 51–55.Google Scholar
  77. Sushil. (2001b). SAP-LAP models. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 2(2), 55–61.Google Scholar
  78. Sushil. (2005). Interpretive matrix: A tool to aid interpretation of management and social research. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 6(2), 27–30.Google Scholar
  79. Sushil. (2009a). SAP-LAP linkages—A generic interpretive framework for analyzing managerial contexts. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 10(2), 11–20.Google Scholar
  80. Sushil. (2009b). Interpretive ranking process. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 10(4), 1–10.Google Scholar
  81. Sushil. (2012). Interpreting the interpretive structural model. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 13(2), 87–106.Google Scholar
  82. Sushil. (2013). Flowing stream strategy: Leveraging strategic change with continuity. New Delhi: Springer.Google Scholar
  83. Sushil. (2016a). How to check correctness of total interpretive structural models? Annals of Operations Research. doi: 10.1007/s10479-016-2312-3.
  84. Sushil. (2016b). Theory of flexible systems management. In Sushil, J. Connel, & J. Burgess (Eds.), Flexible work organizations: The challenges of capacity building in Asia, Flexible systems management (pp. 3–20). New Delhi: Springer.Google Scholar
  85. Sushil. (2017). Multi-criteria valuation of flexibility initiatives using integrated TISM–IRP with a big data framework. Production Planning and Control (accepted).Google Scholar
  86. Thevenaz, C., & Resodihardjo, S. L. (2010). All the best laid plans..conditions impeding proper emergency response. International Journal of Production Economics, 126(1), 7–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Thomas, A. (2003). Humanitarian logistics: Enabling disaster response. San Francisco: Fritz Institute.Google Scholar
  88. Trivedi, A., Singh, A., & Chauhan, A. (2015). Analysis of key factors for waste management in humanitarian response: An interpretive structural modelling approach. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 14(4), 527–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. UNISDR. (2009). UNISDR terminology on disaster risk reduction. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva. http://www.unisdr.org/files/7817_UNISDRTerminologyEnglish.pdf. Accessed 20 September 2016.
  90. Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2006). Humanitarian aid logistics: Supply chain management in high gear. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 57(5), 475–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Venkatesh, V. G., Dubey, R., & Aital, P. (2014). Analysis of sourcing process through SAP-LAP framework—A case study on apparel manufacturing company. International Journal of Procurement Management, 7(2), 145–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wacker, J. G. (1998). A definition of theory: Research guidelines for different theory-building research methods in operations management. Journal of Operations Management, 16(4), 361–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Warfield, J. N. (1974). Towards interpretation of complex structural models. IEEE Transactions: System, Man and Cybernetics, SMC, 4(5), 405–417.Google Scholar
  94. Whetten, D. A. (1989). What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 490–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Whybark, D. C. (2007). Issues in managing disaster relief inventories. International Journal of Production Economics, 108(1), 228–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yadav, D. K., & Barve, A. (2015). Analysis of critical success factors of humanitarian supply chain: An application of interpretive structural modeling. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 12, 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yadav, D. K., & Barve, A. (2016). Modeling post-disaster challenges of humanitarian supply chains: A TISM approach. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 17(3), 321–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management StudiesIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations