Annals of Operations Research

, Volume 181, Issue 1, pp 393–421

A soft multi-criteria decision analysis model with application to the European Union enlargement


DOI: 10.1007/s10479-010-0727-9

Cite this article as:
Tavana, M., Sodenkamp, M.A. & Suhl, L. Ann Oper Res (2010) 181: 393. doi:10.1007/s10479-010-0727-9


This paper proposes a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) model that uses a series of existing intuitive and analytical methods to systematically capture both objective and subjective beliefs and preferences from a group of decision makers (DMs). A defuzzification method that combines entropy and the theory of displaced ideal synthesizes crisp values from the DMs’ subjective judgments. This approach assists the DMs in their selection process by plotting alternatives in a four quadrant graph and considering their Euclidean distance from the “ideal” choice. A pilot study illustrates the details of the proposed method. The DMs were a group of graduate students from the University of Paderborn in Germany. The pilot study concerned the addition of new members into the European Union (EU), a decision that has profound economic and political effects on both the entering and existing members of the Union. The DMs were required to consider a large number of internal strengths and weaknesses and external opportunities and threats in assessing the decision to enlarge the EU. Although the pilot study was not performed by actual DMs from the EU, it was an excellent platform for testing the proposed model.


Multi-criteria decision analysis Soft computing Fuzzy systems SWOT Analytic hierarchy process European Union enlargement Defuzzification Entropy and theory of displaced ideal 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madjid Tavana
    • 1
  • Mariya A. Sodenkamp
    • 2
  • Leena Suhl
    • 3
  1. 1.Management Information Systems, Lindback Distinguished Chair of Information SystemsLa Salle UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Business Information Systems Department, Faculty of Business Administration and EconomicsUniversity of PaderbornRuethen-OestereidenGermany
  3. 3.Business Information Systems, Faculty of Business Administration and EconomicsUniversity of PaderbornPaderbornGermany

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