Annals of Operations Research

, Volume 180, Issue 1, pp 63–103 | Cite as

Multi-objective and prioritized berth allocation in container ports



This paper considers a berth allocation problem (BAP) which requires the determination of exact berthing times and positions of incoming ships in a container port. The problem is solved by optimizing the berth schedule so as to minimize concurrently the three objectives of makespan, waiting time, and degree of deviation from a predetermined priority schedule. These objectives represent the interests of both port and ship operators. Unlike most existing approaches in the literature which are single-objective-based, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) that incorporates the concept of Pareto optimality is proposed for solving the multi-objective BAP. The MOEA is equipped with three primary features which are specifically designed to target the optimization of the three objectives. The features include a local search heuristic, a hybrid solution decoding scheme, and an optimal berth insertion procedure. The effects that each of these features has on the quality of berth schedules are studied.


Berth allocation problem Evolutionary algorithms Multi-objective optimization Combinatorial problems 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Y. Cheong
    • 1
  • K. C. Tan
    • 1
  • D. K. Liu
    • 2
  • C. J. Lin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.ARC Centre of Excellence for Autonomous Systems (CAS), Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of TechnologySydneyAustralia

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