W-band low-noise amplifier using λ/2-spiral-inductor-based positive feedback technique in 90 nm CMOS
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A low-power and wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA) for 77 GHz automobile radar and 94 GHz image radar systems using 90 nm CMOS technology is reported. Half-wavelength (λ/2)-spiral-inductor-based positive feedback technique is used at the common-source input stage for gain (S21) enhancement. Moreover, T-match technique is utilized to achieve simultaneously wideband input and output impedance matching, and wideband S21 and noise figure (NF). The LNA consumes 6.3 mW and achieves S11 and S22 better than − 10 dB for frequencies of 76.9–94.1 GHz and 77.2–96.7 GHz, respectively. That is, the corresponding input and output matching bandwidth are 17.2 GHz and 19.5 GHz, respectively. Additionally, high and flat S21 of 13.5 ± 1.5 dB is achieved for frequencies of 77–99.5 GHz, which means the corresponding 3-dB bandwidth is 22.5 GHz. Furthermore, the LNA achieves NF of 6.3–8.1 dB for frequencies of 75–100 GHz and excellent FOM (figure-of-merit) of 5.97 GHz/mW, one of the best results ever reported for a CMOS LNA with similar operation frequency.
KeywordsLow-noise amplifier (LNA) W-band Millimeter-wave CMOS Wideband High gain Low power Positive feedback Automobile radar Image radar
This work is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the R.O.C. under contracts MOST105-2221-E-260-025-MY3 and MOST106-2221-E-260-025-MY2. The authors are very grateful for the support from National Chip Implementation Center (CIC), Taiwan, for chip fabrication, and National Nano-Device Laboratory (NDL), Taiwan, for high-frequency measurements.
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