Advertisement

High-precision voltage-to-current converters based on single-chip gain-selectable amplifiers

  • Stefano Salvatori
  • Maria Cristina Rossi
  • Marco GirolamiEmail author
Article
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

A new application of single-chip gain-selectable amplifiers for Howland current pump circuits is here presented and discussed. LT199x integrated circuits, by Linear Technology, were used for the implementation of extremely accurate voltage-to-current conversion. Circuit performance was evaluated for resistive temperature-sensors biasing and signal conditioning. Experimental results highlight the excellent performance of the fabricated prototypes in terms of linearity and sensitivity. In addition, a ratiometric measurement method can be applied, ensuring virtual nulling of errors caused by the limited absolute accuracy of the voltage supply and/or the voltage reference used for the whole acquisition system.

Keywords

Howland current sources Voltage-to-current converters Gain-selectable amplifiers Resistive temperature sensors 

References

  1. 1.
    Sheingold, D. H. (1964). Impedance and admittance transformations using operational amplifiers. Lightning Empiricist, 12(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Harrison, L. T. (2005). Current sources & voltage references (Vol. 11). New York: Newnes, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pelcia, M.M., dos Reis Filho, C.A. (2002). Fully integrated programmable Howland current source for sensors excitation. In Proceeding of 4th IEEE international caracas conference on devices, circuits and systems (pp. C028–CI-4)  https://doi.org/10.1109/iccdcs.2002.1004016.
  4. 4.
    Poletto, C. J., & Van Doren, C. L. (1999). A high voltage, constant current stimulator for electrocutaneous stimulation through small electrodes. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 46(8), 929–936.  https://doi.org/10.1109/10.775402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Murnane, M. (2008). Current sources: Options and circuits, AN-968, Analog Devices, Inc. Retrieved Jan 21, 2019 from https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/application-notes/an-968.pdf.
  6. 6.
    Zhao, N., Malik, R., & Liao, W. (2009). Difference amplifier forms heart of precision current sources. Analog Dialogue, 43(3), 22–24.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salvatori, S. (2015). Gain-selectable IC yields voltage-to-current converter. EDN Europe, 7, 30–32.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    Hagart-Alexander, C. (2010). Chapter 21—Temperature measurement. In W. Boyes (Ed.), Instrumentation reference book (4th ed., pp. 287–288). Butterworth-Heinemann.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7506-8308-1.00021-8.
  10. 10.
    Deval, Y., Ducouret, S. G., & Dom, J. P. (1993). Ratiometric temperature stable current reference. Electronics Letters, 29(14), 1284–1285.  https://doi.org/10.1049/el:19930857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringUniversità Niccolò CusanoRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of EngineeringUniversità Roma TreRomeItaly
  3. 3.CNR-ISM, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Struttura della MateriaMonterotondo Stazione, RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations