High-precision voltage-to-current converters based on single-chip gain-selectable amplifiers

  • Stefano Salvatori
  • Maria Cristina Rossi
  • Marco GirolamiEmail author


A new application of single-chip gain-selectable amplifiers for Howland current pump circuits is here presented and discussed. LT199x integrated circuits, by Linear Technology, were used for the implementation of extremely accurate voltage-to-current conversion. Circuit performance was evaluated for resistive temperature-sensors biasing and signal conditioning. Experimental results highlight the excellent performance of the fabricated prototypes in terms of linearity and sensitivity. In addition, a ratiometric measurement method can be applied, ensuring virtual nulling of errors caused by the limited absolute accuracy of the voltage supply and/or the voltage reference used for the whole acquisition system.


Howland current sources Voltage-to-current converters Gain-selectable amplifiers Resistive temperature sensors 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringUniversità Niccolò CusanoRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of EngineeringUniversità Roma TreRomeItaly
  3. 3.CNR-ISM, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Struttura della MateriaMonterotondo Stazione, RomeItaly

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