A novel two stage cross coupled architecture for low voltage low power voltage reference generator

  • Mohammad Azimi Dastgerdi
  • Mehdi HabibiEmail author
  • Mehdi Dolatshahi


Sensor network architectures have gained significant attention in acquiring data over widespread areas. To avoid wiring and power complexities, self-powered operation is desirable in these sensors. For this purpose, low voltage and low power characteristics of the internal electronic building blocks is of significant importance. Since sensor architectures usually require voltage reference circuitry, in this paper, a low voltage, low power bandgap reference circuit block is presented. Using a new two stage topology, the line sensitivity is reduced to a significantly low value of 0.28%/V over a wider power supply range of 0.2 V to 2 V. Due to the use of MOSFETs in the subthreshold region, low voltage and low power operation of about 41 pW at 0.2 V is obtained. Furthermore by introducing a novel cross coupled architecture, the temperature coefficient is enhanced considerably. An average temperature coefficient of 247 ppm/°C is obtained at different corners. The performance of the architecture is studied in a 0.18 µm process using post layout and Monte Carlo evaluations. The evaluation results show improvements in both line sensitivity and temperature coefficients compared with previous work.


Subthreshold Voltage reference Low power Low voltage 


  1. 1.
    Razavi, B. (2017). Design of analog CMOS integrated circuits (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang, A., & Chandrakasan, A. (2005). A 180-mV subthreshold FFT processor using a minimum energy design methodology. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 40(1), 310–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Luo, S.-C., & Chiou, L.-Y. (2010). A sub-200-mV voltage-scalable SRAM with tolerance of access failure by self-activated bitline sensing. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 57(6), 440–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Modava, M., et al. (2017). Design of efficient power amplifier for low power transmitters. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 90(3), 563–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Azhari, S. J., & Nickhah, G. (2017). A novel ultra-low-power, low-voltage, ultra-high output resistance and uniquely high bandwidth femto-ampere current mirror. Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 36(9), 3527–3548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mattia, O. E., Klimach, H., & Bampi, S. (2015). Sub-1 V supply 5 nW 11 ppm/° C resistorless sub-bandgap voltage reference. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 85(1), 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lo, T.-Y., Hung, C.-C., & Ismail, M. (2010). CMOS voltage reference based on threshold voltage and thermal voltage. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 62(1), 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sarafi, S., Aain, A. K. B., & Abbaszadeh, J. (2016). Low-voltage CMOS Switch for high-speed rail-to-rail sampling. Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 35(3), 771–790.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ivanov, V., Brederlow, R., & Gerber, J. (2012). An ultra low power bandgap operational at supply from 0.75 V. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 47(7), 1515–1523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Filanovsky, I., & Allam, A. (2001). Mutual compensation of mobility and threshold voltage temperature effects with applications in CMOS circuits. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 48(7), 876–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yang, Y., et al. (2011). All-CMOS subbandgap reference circuit operating at low supply voltage. In 2011 IEEE international symposium on circuits and systems (ISCAS). 2011. IEEE.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Magnelli, L., et al. (2011). A 2.6 nW, 0.45 V temperature-compensated subthreshold CMOS voltage reference. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 46(2), 465–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chouhan, S. S., & Halonen, K. (2014). Design and implementation of all MOS micro-power voltage reference circuit. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 80(3), 399–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang, Y., et al. (2015). A 0.45-V, 14.6-nW CMOS subthreshold voltage reference with no resistors and no BJTs. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 62(7), 621–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhu, Z., Hu, J., & Wang, Y. (2016). A 0.45 V, nano-watt 0.033% line sensitivity MOSFET-only sub-threshold voltage reference with no amplifiers. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 63(9), 1370–1380.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Seok, M., et al. (2012). A portable 2-transistor picowatt temperature-compensated voltage reference operating at 0.5 V. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 47(10), 2534–2545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Vita, G., & Iannaccone, G. (2007). A sub-1-V, 10 ppm/°C, nanopower voltage reference generator. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 42(7), 1536–1542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Albano, D., et al. (2015). A sub-kT/q voltage reference operating at 150 mV. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, 23(8), 1547–1551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bucher, M., et al. (1998). The EPFL-EKV MOSFET model equations for simulation. EPFL Lausanne Switzerland, Technical Report, 1998.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Albano, D., et al. (2014). A picopower temperature-compensated, subthreshold CMOS voltage reference. International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 42(12), 1306–1318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yang, B.-D. (2014). 250-mV supply subthreshold CMOS voltage reference using a low-voltage comparator and a charge-pump circuit. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 61(11), 850–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering, Najafabad BranchIslamic Azad UniversityNajafabadIran
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations