Advertisement

Compact substrate integrated waveguide sensor for liquids permittivity measurement

  • Mohamad Khalil
  • Mahmoud Kamarei
  • Jalal Jomaah
  • Majida Fadlallah
Article
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

A compact substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) liquids permittivity sensor structure that utilizes half-mode (HM) and slow-wave (SW) techniques for the miniaturization of SIW sensor is presented in this paper. First, HM miniaturization technique is applied to SIW resonator cavity. Sensor width is reduced by 50% in comparison to the conventional resonator. Due to the complexity of the relationship between the complex permittivity of the substrate and liquids under test, artificial neural network tool is used as a simple and fast method to determine liquids’ complex permittivity through the measured resonant frequency and unloaded quality factor. The sensor is fabricated, and good agreement with simulations is observed according to the obtained experimental results. In the second step, SW and HM techniques are applied to the SIW sensor. The application of the HM and SW techniques indicate that an increase in sensor miniaturization while obtaining a better quality factor could be achieved. Furthermore, HM-SW-SIW is not fabricated, and we are satisfied with simulation results since we have fabricated other components. Moreover, good correspondence between the measurement and simulation results is obtained. Finally, a comparison between the structures presented in this paper and those published previously is made, demonstrating that a minimum of 25% miniaturization is achieved while maintaining acceptable characteristics.

Keywords

Slow-wave SIW Half-mode Sensor Complex permittivity Compact 

References

  1. 1.
    Saeed, K., Shafique, M. F., Byrne, M. B., & Hunter, I. C. (2012). Planar microwave sensors for complex permittivity characterization of materials and their applications. In Applied measurement systems, InTech.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Raj, A., Holmes, W., & Judah, S. (2001). Wide bandwidth measurement of complex permittivity of liquids using coplanar lines. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 50(4), 905–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Facer, G. R., Notterman, D. A., & Sohn, L. L. (2001). Dielectric spectroscopy for bioanalysis: From 40 Hz to 26.5 GHz in a microfabricated wave guide. Applied Physics Letters, 78(7), 996–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khalid, K. bin, & Hua, T. L. (1998). Development of conductor-backed coplanar waveguide moisture sensor for oil palm fruit. Measurement Science and Technology, 9(8), 1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Toropainen, A., Vainikainen, P., & Drossos, A. (2000). Method for accurate measurement of complex permittivity of tissue equivalent liquids. Electronics Letters, 36(1), 32–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    El Matbouly, H., Boubekeur, N., & Domingue, F. (2015). Passive microwave substrate integrated cavity resonator for humidity sensing. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 63(12), 4150–4156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu, C., & Tong, F. (2015). An SIW resonator sensor for liquid permittivity measurements at C band. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 25(11), 751–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benleulmi, A., Sama, N. Y., Ferrari, P., & Domingue, F. (2016). Substrate integrated waveguide phase shifter for hydrogen sensing. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 26(9), 744–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hong, W., Liu, B., Wang, Y., Lai, Q., Tang, H., Yin, X. X., et al. (2006). Half mode substrate integrated waveguide: A new guided wave structure for microwave and millimeter wave application. In Joint 31st international conference on infrared millimeter waves and 14th international conference on Teraherz electronics, 2006 (IRMMW-THz 2006)(pp. 219–219). IEEE.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bertrand, M., Liu, Z., Pistono, E., Kaddour, D., & Ferrari, P. (2015). A compact slow-wave substrate integrated waveguide cavity filter. In ISM conference.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, R., Zhou, X.-L., & Wu, L.-S. (2009). A folded substrate integrated waveguide cavity filter using novel negative coupling. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 51(3), 866–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu, J.-P., Lv, Z.-Q., & An, X. (2016). Compact substrate integrated waveguide filter using dual-plane resonant cells. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 58(1), 111–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khalil, M., Kamarei, M., Jomaah, J., Ayad, H., & Fadlallah, M. (2017). Half-mode slow-wave substrate integrated waveguide analysis. PIER M, 60, 169–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lai, Q., Fumeaux, C., Hong, W., & Vahldieck, R. (2009). Characterization of the propagation properties of the half-mode substrate integrated waveguide. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 57(8), 1996–2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cameron, R. J., Kudsia, C. M., & Mansour, R. R. (2007). Microwave filters for communication systems: Fundamentals, design, and applications. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Canos, A. J., Catala-Civera, J. M., Penaranda-Foix, F. L., & Reyes-Davo, E. (2006). A novel technique for deembedding the unloaded resonance frequency from measurements of microwave cavities. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 54(8), 3407–3416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cassivi, Y., Perregrini, L., Arcioni, P., Bressan, M., Wu, K., & Conciauro, G. (2002). Dispersion characteristics of substrate integrated rectangular waveguide. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 12(9), 333–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ming, L., Huang, K., Pu, T., Bo, W., & Yang, L. (2010). Measurement and prediction of dielectric for liquids based artificial nerve network. In 2010 International conference on microwave and millimeter wave technology (ICMMT) (pp. 1083–1085). IEEE.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hasan, A., & Peterson, A. F. (2011). Measurement of complex permittivity using artificial neural networks. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 53(1), 200–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pinjare, S., & Kumar, A. (2012). Implementation of neural network back propagation training algorithm on FPGA. International Journal of Computer Applications, 52(6), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sato, T., Chiba, A., & Nozaki, R. (1999). Dynamical aspects of mixing schemes in ethanol–water mixtures in terms of the excess partial molar activation free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the dielectric relaxation process. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 110(5), 2508–2521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abduljabar, A. A., Rowe, D. J., Porch, A., & Barrow, D. A. (2014). Novel microwave microfluidic sensor using a microstrip split-ring resonator. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 62, 679–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu, C., & Pu, Y. (2008). A microstrip resonator with slotted ground plane for complex permittivity measurements of liquids. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 18(4), 257–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moscato, S., Pasian, M., Bozzi, M., Perregrini, L., Bahr, R., Le, T., et al. (2015). Exploiting 3D printed substrate for microfluidic siw sensor. In 2015 European microwave conference (EuMC) (pp. 28–31). IEEE.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics Department, Faculty of SciencesLebanese UniversityBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran

Personalised recommendations