Advertisement

Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 389–398 | Cite as

A high speed programmable focal-plane SIMD vision chip

  • Dominique Ginhac
  • Jérôme Dubois
  • Barthélémy Heyrman
  • Michel Paindavoine
Article

Abstract

A high speed analog VLSI image acquisition and low-level image processing system is presented. The architecture of the chip is based on a dynamically reconfigurable SIMD processor array. The chip features a massively parallel architecture enabling the computation of programmable mask-based image processing in each pixel. Each pixel include a photodiode, an amplifier, two storage capacitors, and an analog arithmetic unit based on a four-quadrant multiplier architecture. A 64 × 64 pixel proof-of-concept chip was fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS process, with a pixel size of 35 μm × 35 μm. The chip can capture raw images up to 10,000 fps and runs low-level image processing at a framerate of 2,000–5,000 fps.

Keywords

CMOS image sensor Parallel architecture SIMD High-speed image processing Analog arithmetic unit 

References

  1. 1.
    Fossum, E. (1993). Active pixel sensors: Are CCDs dinosaurs? International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE), 1900, 2–14.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fossum, E. (1997). CMOS image sensor: Electronic camera on a CHIP. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 44(10), 1689–1698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seitz, P. (2000). Solid-state image sensing. Handbook of computer Vision and Applications, 1, 165–222.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Litwiller, D. (2001). CCD vs. CMOS: Facts and fiction. Photonics Spectra, 35, 154–158.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aw, C. H., & Wooley, B. (1996). A 128 × 128-pixel standard-cmos image sensor with electronic shutter. IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, 31(12), 1922–1930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Loinaz, M., Singh, K., Blanksby, A., Inglis, D., Azadet, K., & Ackland, B. (1998). A 200 mV 3.3 V CMOS color camera IC producing 352 × 288 24-b video at 30 frames/s. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 33(12), 2092–2103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith, S., Hurwitz, J., Torrie, M., Baxter, D., Holmes, A., Panaghiston, M., Henderson, R., Murrayn, A., Anderson, S., & Denyer P. (1998). A single-chip 306 × 244-pixel CMOS NTSC video camera. In ISSCC digest of technical papers, San Fransisco, CA (pp. 170–171).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yadid-Pecht, O., & Belenky, A. (2003). In-pixel autoexposure CMOS APS. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 38(8), 1425–1428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Acosta-Serafini, P., Ichiro, M., & Sodini, C. (2004). “A 1/3” VGA linear wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor implementing a predictive multiple sampling algorithm with overlapping integration intervals. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 39(9), 1487–1496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kozlowski, L., Rossi, G., Blanquart, L., Marchesini, R., Huang, Y., Chow, G., Richardson, J., & Standley, D. (2005). Pixel noise suppression via SoC management of target Reset in a 1920 × 1080 CMOS image sensor. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 40(12), 2766–2776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sakakibara, M., Kawahito, S., Handoko, D., Nakamura, N., Higashi, M., Mabuchi, K., & Sumi, H. (2005). A high-sensitivity CMOS image sensor with gain-adaptative column amplifiers. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 40(5), 1147–1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nixon, R. H., Kemeny, S. E., Staller, C. O., & Fossum, E. R. (1995). 128 × 128 CMOS photodiode-type active pixel sensor with on-chip timing, control, and signal chain electronics. In M. M. Blouke (ed.), Proceedings of the SPIE charge-coupled devices and solid state optical sensors V, April (Vol. 2415, pp. 117–123).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wuu, S., Chien, H., Yaung, D., Tseng, C., Wang, C., Chang, C., & Hsaio Y. (2001). A high performance active pixel sensor with 0.18 μm CMOS color imager technology. In Electron devices meeting, 2001. IEDM technical digest. International (pp. 555–558).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Decker, S., McGrath, D., Brehmer, K., & Sodini, C. (1998). A 256 × 256 CMOS imaging array with wide dynamic range pixels and column-parallel digital output. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 33(12), 2081–2091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yoon, K., Kim, C., Lee, B., & Lee, D. (2002). Single-chip cmos image sensor for mobile applications. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, December.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Komuro, T., Ishii, I., Ishikawa, M., & Yoshida, A. (2003). A digital vision chip specialized for high-speed target tracking. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 50(1), 191–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cembrano, G., Rodriguez-Vazquez, A., Galan, R., Jimenez-Garrido, F., Espejo, S., & Dominguez-Castro, R. (2004). A 1000 FPS at 128 × 128 vision processor with 8-bit digitized I/O. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 39(7), 1044–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rodriguez-Vasquez, G., Cembrano, A., Carranza, L., Roca-Moreno, E., Carmona, R., Jimenez-Garrido, F., Dominguez-Castro, R., & Meana, S. (2004). Ace16k: The third generation of mixed-signal SIMD-CNN ACE chips toward VSoCs. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 51(5), 851–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lindgren, L., Melander, J., Johansson, R., & Mller, B. (2005). A multiresolution 100-GOPS 4-Gpixels/s programmable smart vision sensor for multisense imaging. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 40(6), 1350–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sugiyama, Y., Takumi, M., Toyoda, H., Mukozaka, N., Ihori, A., kurashina, T., Nakamura, Y., Tonbe, T., & Mizuno, S. (2005). A high-speed CMOS image with profile data acquiring function. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 40, 2816–2823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dudek, P., & Hicks, P. (2005). A general-purpose processor-per-pixel analog SIMD vision chip. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 52(1), 13– 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miao, W., Lin, Q., Zhang, W., & Wu, N. (2008). A programmable SIMD vision chip for real-time vision applications. Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of, 43(6), 1470–1479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krymski, A., Van Blerkom, D., Andersson, A., Bock, N., Mansoorian, B., & Fossum, E. (1999). A high speed, 500 frames/s, 1024 × 1024 CMOS active pixel sensor. In VLSI circuits, 1999. Digest of technical papers. 1999 symposium on (pp. 137–138).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stevanovic, N., Hillebrand, M., Hosticka, B., & Teuner A. (2000). A CMOS image sensor for high-speed imaging. In Solid-state circuits conference, 2000. Digest of technical papers. ISSCC. 2000 IEEE international (Vol. 449, pp. 104–105).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kleinfelder, S., Lim, S., Liu, X., & El Gamal, A. (2001). A 10000 frames/s CMOS digital pixel sensor. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 36(12), 2049–2059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Handoko, D., Takokoro, K. S, Y., Kumahara, M., & Matsuzawa, A. (2000). A CMOS image sensor for local-plane motion vector estimation. In Symposium of VLSI circuits, June (Vol. 3650, pp. 28–29).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lim, S., & El Gamal, A. (2001). Integrating image capture and processing—beyond single chip digital camera. In Proceedings of the SPIE electronic imaging ’2001 conference, January, San Jose, CA (Vol. 4306).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yang, D., El Gamal, A., Fowler, B., & Tian, H. (1999). A 640 × 512 CMOS image sensor with ultra wide dynamix range floating-point pixel-level ADC. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 34, 1821–1834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yadid-Pecht, O., & Fossum, E. (1999). CMOS APS with autoscaling and customized wide dynamic range. In IEEE workshop on charge-coupled devices and advanced image sensors, June (Vol. 3650, pp. 48–51).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wu, C.-Y., & Chiang, C.-T. (2004). A low-photocurrent CMOS retinal focal-plane sensor with a pseudo-BJT smoothing network and an adaptative current Schmitt trigger for scanner applications. IEEE Sensors Journal, 4(4), 510–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dubois, J., Ginhac, D., Paindavoine, M., & Heyrman, B. (2008). A 10000 fps cmos sensor with massively parallel image processing. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 43(3), 706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wu, C., Shih, Y., Lan, J., Hsieh, C., Huang, C., & Lu, J. (2004). Design, optimization, and performance analysis of new photodiode structures for CMOS active-pixel-sensor (APS) imager applications. IEEE Sensors Journal, 4(1), 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shcherback, I., Belenky, A., & Yadid-Pecht, O. (2002). Empirical dark current modeling for complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor. Optical Engineering, 41(6), 1216–1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shcherback, I., & Yadid-Pecht, O. (2003). Photoresponse analysis and pixel shape optimization for CMOS active pixel sensors. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 50(1), 12–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chapinal, G., Bota, S., Moreno, M., Palacin, J., & Herms, A. (2002). A 128 × 128 CMOS image sensor with analog memory for synchronous image capture. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2(2), 120–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ryan, C. (1970). Applications of a four-quadrant multiplier. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 5(1), 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu, S., & Hwang, Y. (1995). CMOS squarer and four-quadrant multiplier. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I:Fundamental Theory and Applications, 42(2), 119–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominique Ginhac
    • 1
  • Jérôme Dubois
    • 1
  • Barthélémy Heyrman
    • 1
  • Michel Paindavoine
    • 1
  1. 1.LE2I—Université de BourgogneDijon CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations