The (In)compatibility of Diversity and Sense of Community

  • Zachary P. NealEmail author
  • Jennifer Watling Neal
Original Article


Community psychologists are interested in creating contexts that promote both respect for diversity and sense of community. However, recent theoretical and empirical work has uncovered a community-diversity dialectic wherein the contextual conditions that foster respect for diversity often run in opposition to those that foster sense of community. More specifically, within neighborhoods, residential integration provides opportunities for intergroup contact that are necessary to promote respect for diversity but may prevent the formation of dense interpersonal networks that are necessary to promote sense of community. Using agent-based modeling to simulate neighborhoods and neighborhood social network formation, we explore whether the community-diversity dialectic emerges from two principles of relationship formation: homophily and proximity. The model suggests that when people form relationships with similar and nearby others, the contexts that offer opportunities to develop a respect for diversity are different from the contexts that foster a sense of community. Based on these results, we conclude with a discussion of whether it is possible to create neighborhoods that simultaneously foster respect for diversity and sense of community.


Diversity Sense of community Agent-based modeling Social networks 



The authors wish to thank the staff at the High Performance Computing Center at Michigan State University for their technical assistance.

Supplementary material

10464_2013_9608_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 2285 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society for Community Research and Action 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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